Playing Condition

General
Speed
Stimpmeter
Mowing Height
Rolling
Topdressing
Other Factors
Hole Setup
Tournaments
Ball Mark Repair
Spikes
Specific Greens

General

Helping Your Greens Make the Grade Here's a guide to help you evaluate the many factors that determine how your greens perform. by JAMES FRANCIS MOORE

Preparing the green - USGA Video

Grading Green Performance

Turgeon - Turf Quality

USGA GR (Jul 2003): Putting Surface Pace: Some Factors can be Controlled; Others Cannot. Are You Prioritizing Properly?

USGA GR (Mar 2002): Course Presentation: Playability vs. Aesthetics

USGA GR (Jul 1997): Preparing Greens for That All-Important Tournament

Skorulski - Too much consistency?

Radko - A study of putting green variability.

Foy - Going for the gold with bermudagrass greens.

Foy - Going for the gold with bermudagrass greens. II.

Finetuning Bermuda Greens (II)

McWhirter - Effect of vertical mowing and aerification on golf green quality.

Salaiz - Mowing height and vertical mowing frequency effects on putting green quality.

Beard - Quality playing conditions--the role of research.

Baker - Rootzone composition and the performance of golf greens. I. Sward characteristics before and after the first year of simulated wear.

Baker - Rootzone composition and the performance of golf greens. II. Playing quality under conditions of simulated wear.

Mitchell - Quality playing conditions for every day.

Buchanan - Place the emphasis on playing conditions

Berg - A golfer's view of maintenance.

Condition Consistency

Achenbach, Fast Greens
 
Greens - Grass Agronomy
 
Greens - Improved Agronomy
Speed

It's Time We Put the Green Back in Green Speed by DAVID A. OATIS Director, Northeastern Region, USGA Green Section

USGA GR: Speed Demons: Who's to Blame in the Need for Speed? (Jan/Feb 2006)

USGA GR: Green Speed: Trick or Treat? (Jul 2006)

USGA GR: Where is Green Speed Taking the Game? (May 2005)

USGA GR (Mar 1997): Green Speed Physics

USGA GR (Nov 1995): SPEED -- Consider What's Right for Your Course

UFL, Bermudagrass speeds: can fast greens be green?

Linde - Future of green speed: What are your option?

Measuring Green Speed on Sloped Putting Greens by A. DOUGLAS BREDE, Ph.D. Research Director, Jacklin Seed Company

Chalmers - Putting green quality--how far can you go?

Chalmers - Putting green management for quality and speed -- fertilization.

Buchanan - Putting green management for quality and speed -- mowing, top dressing, aeration.

Owens - Putting green management for quality and speed -- mowing.

Hankley - Putting green management for quality and speed -- mowing, top dressing, aeration, irrigation, pesticide application.

Reese - Putting green management for quality and speed -- improvement.

Buchanan - Putting green management for quality and speed -- irrigation, top dressing mowing. (1984)

Owens - Putting green management for quality and speed -- fertilization, mowing. (1984)

Hankley - -Putting green management for quality and speed. (1984)

Zedreck - Food for thought--regarding fast greens. Engel - Some (more) thoughts on putting green speed.

Weber - Green speed physics: the laws of physics applied to golf course maintenance practices.

S.P.E.E.D. - Consider What's Right for Your Course by Paul Vermeulen, Agronomist, Mid-Continent Region, USGA Green Section

Radko - How fast are your greens? an update.

Brede - Correction for slope in green speed measurement of golf course putting greens.

Bermudagrass ball roll test

Green Speed - GCSAA

Managing Ball Roll Speed

Stimpmeter

Scientific Turf Products

USGA Stimpmeter Instruction Booklet

USGA Measuring green speed on sloped putting greens

Getting a Stimpmeter

Use Of The Stimpmeter - USGA Animation

Stimpmeter

Hartwiger - Measure putting green speed.

Gaussoin - A modified stimpmeter for small-plot turfgrass research.

Thomas - The stimpmeter and the open.

Stimpmeter. BMS Europe Ltd. Turf Care Tools

Thomas - Ups and downs with the Stimpmeter: how it all began Golf course tool, turfgrass management.

Albaugh - A new turf menace Stimpmeter, golf course management.

Mitchell - It's a good tool--use with caution and restraint Stimpmeter, putting green quality, golf course.

Zontek - Up with the Stimpmeter Measuring putting green speed, golf course.

Mowing Height
See also Maintenance (Yellow, Top Menu)
 
Turgeon - Mowing

USGA GR: Low-Carb Diet: Rutgers University Scientists Demonstrate How the Combination of High Temperatures and Low Mowing Leads to Carbohydrate Depletion of Putting Green Turf (Mar 2006)

Kopec - Bentgrass green performance: initial investigations of mowing height and rolling.

Fagerness - Plant growth regulators and mowing height affect ball roll and quality of creeping bentgrass putting greens.

Hoos - Putting greens--the height of cut.

Rolling
Turgeon - Smoothing the Surface

USGA GR: The Little Roller That Could: A Useful Technique to Firm Up Soft Greens After Close-Center Aeration (May 2006)

USGA GR (Jan 2002): More Light on Lightweight Rolling

Golfdom, The Putting surface: Rollers reconsidered

USGA GR (Jul 1996): Hartwiger - The ups and downs of rolling putting greens.

Kopec - Bentgrass green performance: initial investigations of mowing height and rolling.

Beard - Turf rolling: research indicates that turf rolling improves putting green speed.

Latham - Rolling out the ups and downs of green speed.

Topdressing

See also Maintenance (Yellow, Top Menu)

USGA GR (May 1998): A Shower a Day Fills the Holes OK - Two nozzles and a syringe hose can improve the incorporation of topdressing.

Turgeon - Smoothing the Surface

Golfdom, Take charge of your topdressing

Taylor - Late Fall Topdressing - U Wisconsin

Gaussoin - Built for (green) speed: managing ball roll.

Topdressing & Ball Roll

Other Factors

Fungicide Effects on Ball Roll - UW Turfgrass Pathology Research

USGA GR: Rootzone Depth Affects Putting Green Performance (Nov 2005)

USGA GR: Grain on the Brain (Nov 2005)

USGA GR: In Search of the Silver Bullet: The Influce of Microbial and Organic-Based Products on Putting Green Performance (Sep 2004)

Rist - Season and genotype influence golf ball roll distance on creeping bentgrass.

Rist - Golf ball deceleration measuring system to evaluate surface uniformity on golf course greens.

Ristometer for Ball Friction

Baker - Rootzone composition and the performance of golf greens. I. Sward characteristics before and after the first year of simulated wear.

Baker - Rootzone composition and the performance of golf greens. II. Playing quality under conditions of simulated wear.

Baker - The effect of rootzone composition on the playing quality of Festuca/Agrostis/Poa annua golf greens

Fagerness - Plant growth regulators and mowing height affect ball roll and quality of creeping bentgrass putting greens.

TurfFax May-Jun 1999 - New & renovated Greens & Ball Bounce

Buchanan - Why don't the greens hold?

Hole Setup

Happ - Hole placement: the art of cutting the hole.

Selecting hole locations - USGA video

Changing hole locations - USGA video

Hole / Cup Location Principles

USGA GR (May 1995): No Holes: "Play(Practice) Away, Please" (practice greens without holes)

Golf Digest: Debacle at Olympic: The hole truth. Author/s: Mike Stachura Issue: June, 1999 Pin positions are like meteorologists on The Weather Channel: They get attention only when something bad happens.
Putts - 1998 Open Stewart

Cardace - Set it up right! Routine turf management and course setup influence USGA course and slope ratings.

Hole Placement

Tournaments

Moncrief - Bermudagrass greens for championship conditions.

Moraghan - Member-Guest or U.S. open: How to prepare for a tournament.

Zontek - Preparing your greens for that all-important tournament.

Hawes - The secrets of championship greens revealed.

Rhoads - Requirements for play the professional's view.

Ball Mark Repair

Golfers Need Turf Etiquette 05/03/01

Repairing Ball Marks - USGA Video

USGA - The Rules of Golf-Etiquette
 
Golf Etiquette

Etiquette on the Green

Repairing Ballmarks - GCSAA

USGA GR (Jul 2003): Ball Marks on Bentgrass: Blame the Golfer, Not the Cultivar

USGA GR (Jan 2002): Ball Mark Recovery as Influenced By Growth Regulators and Bio-Stimulants

USGA GR (May 1993): Ball Marks to Bentgrass

Divot & Ball Mark Etiquette

Oatis - Ball marks to bentgrass.

Skorulski - Golfers' role in maintenance.

Golfer Role in Maintenance

Repair Divots and Ball Marks

Spikes

Golf Shoes and Turf Wear

Golf Shoes and Turf Wear A Story that Wont Go Away! by WILLIAM H. BENGEYFIELD National Director, USGA Green Section

Golf Shoe Study II by DR. VICTOR A. GIBEAULT, Extension Horticulturist, and DR. VICTOR B. YOUNGER, Agronomist, University of California, Riverside; WILLIAM H. BENGEYFIELD, National Director, USGA Green Section
Spikes TGIC
Search Your Sole - Remove Your Spikes! by LARRY W. GILHULY Director, Western Region, USGA Green Section

USGA - The Rules of Golf-Etiquette (spike mark repair)

USGA GR (Sep 2003): PGA Touring Pros Evaluate Putting Greens for Spike Damage

USGA GR (Sep 1996): The Metallic Mashers of Monocots -- Golf Spikes!

USGA GR (Nov 1996): Taking Spikeless Shoes Public

Spikeless-shoe Policies

Spikes Research - Clemson

Gilhuly - The metallic mashers of monocots: golf spikes!

Gross - Spikeless golf shoes--avoiding a slip-up.

Spikeless Shoes & Slipping

Happ - Reduce the risk. (spikeless traction)

Reducing Spikeless Risks

Yikes, spikes! Non-metal cleats offer advantages

Specific Greens
Augusta Greens 1997

Greens - Troon North

Greens - Pinehurst

Greens - Pinehurst No. 2

Greens - Pinehurst No. 2
 
Greens - Pinehurst History