Maintenance

Managment
Green Committee
Mowing
Fertilization / Nutrients
Plant Growth regulators
Aerification
Topdressing
Thatch
Verticutting
Air Circulation
Subsurface Cooling
Damage
Resodding / Regrassing
Creep & Shrinkage

See also Trouble (Yellow, Top Menu)

Management

Golf Course Mgmt - GCSAA

GCSAA Greens Maintenance InfoPack

Turgeon - Turfgrass Management
Turgeon - Turfgrass Case Library - Problem-solving

Turfgrass Trends, Equipment articles

2001 Turfgrass and Environmental Research - Integrated Turfgrass Management

Hall - Planning management programs for high sand greens.

Mazur - Cool-season/warm-season turfgrass management in the transition zone.

Hartwiger - Survival tools for the putting green.

Latham - Back to basics. (maintenance)

Bengeyfield - New Zealand: Turfgrass management in an incredible land.

‡Beard, Turf Management for Golf Courses (Ann Arbor Pess, 2d ed., 2001)
‡White, Turf Manager's Handbook for Golf Course Construction, Renovation and Grow-in (Ann Arbor Press, 2000)
California Fairways - JAN/FEB 2000 - The Evolution of Turfgrass Equipment By Dr. Kent W. Kurtz

USGA GR (Jan 2001): Do You Have Green Creep?

Croce - Golf and turfgrass management in Italy.

Italian Turfgrass Mgmt.

Zontek - Turf management in England and Scotland: so similar, yet so different.

Crenshaw - Strategies for successful long-term maintenance of golf courses.

The art of putting green management. Author(s): Oatis, D.A. Found In: Proceedings - Virginia Turfgrass Landscape Conference. Proc Va Turfgrass Landscape Conf Dec 1989. (29th) p. 38-39.

White - The best turf tips of 1985. II. Flushing drains and brushing greens

The Glencoe Golf & Country Club Green Report

W Va GCSA Turf Management

Purdue Turf Maintenance

Turf & Recreation - Grounds Maintenance

Turf Tips Online

Talkin Turf

Clemson World Spring 2001 -- Every Shot Counts

Sea Island Golf Club

Rolling Meadows Golf- Turf Tips

Green Committee
The Word "GREEN" In Golf

USGA GR: Bonne Etiquette!: Golf Course Superintendents and the Green Committee Can Lead the Way (Jan 2006)

USGA GR: Super Educators: The Green Committee, Course Officials, and Golfers All Need Regular Schooling (Sep 2005)

USGA GR (Sep 2003): The Ten Most Common Green Committee Mistakes

USGA GR (Jul 2002): A View from the Chairman: The Green Chairman's Role in Turfgrass Preparation

USGA GR (Sep 1994): The Green Committee Chairperson: are You Up to the Challenge?

Green Committees by DONALD STEEL Golf Course Architect, London, England
 
"Mr Green Committee Chairman" by Paul D. Cato, Jr. President, Colonial Country Club, Fort Worth, Texas
 
Communicate! Communicate! Communicate! by Arthur P Weber Old Westbury Golf & Country Club, Old Westbury, New York
 
THE GREEN COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSON: Are You Up To The Challenge? by James Frances Moore Director, Mid-Continent Region, USGA Green Section
 
A Guide for Green Committee Members

Perfecting a Good Relationship with Your Green Chairman

Mowing

See also Condition

Turfgrass Trends, Mowing articles

Turgeon - Mowing
Turfgrass Tips Online vol 1(1) - 10 Steps to Cutting the Perfect Green The Rider
Turfgrass Tips Online vol 1(3) - Mowing Perfect Greens: The Walker

USGA GR: Walking Green Mowers: Solution or Problem?: Carefully Analyze Several Factors Before Determining the Best Plan (Nov 2004)

Salaiz - Mowing height and vertical mowing frequency effects on putting green quality.

Evolution of Lawn Mowers

Picture Perfect: Mowing techniques for lawns, landscapes and sports

Vavrek - How low can you go? (mowing heights)

Fagerness - Plant growth regulators and mowing height affect ball roll and quality of creeping bentgrass putting greens.

Green Mowing

Purdue Turf Tips (2004): Optimum mowing heights

Billings - Green mowers.

Greens Mowers

Moraghan - Greensmower maintenance.

Hoos - Putting greens--the height of cut.

Foy - Ring management: a useful tip to help you get rid of mower ring around the collar.

Triplex Greens Mowers

Snow - The triplex "ring".

Williamson - Oviposition of black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on creeping bentgrass putting greens and removal of eggs by mowing.

Mower Height & Grass Health

Latham - Lightweight mowing: the rest of the story.

Fertilization / Nutrition
See also Turfgrass

Turfgrass Trends, Nutrients articles

Turfgrass Trends, Fertilizer articles

Pesticide and liquid fertilizer spray calculator

Soil Nutrient Test for Sand-Based Greens

EMCI Chemical References
 
Turfgrass Trends, Plant Nutrition articles
 
UFL Selected Fertilizers Used in Turfgrass Fertilization J.B. Sartain & J.K. Kruse

USGA GR (Mar 2003): Measuring Nitrogen Loss from a Floating Green: A Unique Opportunity to Assess Nutrient Losses

USGA GR (Sep2003): Micro-Managing: Do Not Underestimate the Importance of Micronutrients in Intensively Managed Turfgrass

USGA GR (Sep 2001): Nitrogen and Phosphorous Loss from Greens and Fairways

USGA GR (Mar 1996): A Practical Approach to Putting Green Fertilization

USGA GR (Jan 1995): Leaching of Nitrate from Sand Putting Greens

Purdue TURF TIP 9/23/05 September is a Crucial for Fertilizing All Cool-Season Turfs

2001 Turfgrass and Environmental Research - Characterization of Leaching at the Coeur d'Alene Golf Course Floating Green Washington State University

2001 Turfgrass and Environmental Research - The Effects of Turfgrass Root Architecture on Nitrate Leaching and Nitrogen Use Efficiency North Carolina State University

2001 Turfgrass and Environmental Research - Nitrogen and Phosphorus Leaching and Runoff from Golf Greens and Fairways University of Georgia
2001 USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research - Research summary - Increasing the Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cool-Season Turfgrasses by Regulating Nitrate Metabolism University of Rhode Island
2001 Turfgrass and Environmental Research - Phosphorus Fertilization of USGA-Type Putting Greens: Placement, Rates and Leaching Auburn University Al

Fertilization and Liming

Fertilizer Materials

California Fairways - Sept/Oct 99 - Phosphorus Facts Myths AND Legends for California Superintendents by David Wilber

Duble - Turfgrass Fertilization

California Fairways - May/Jun 99 - Some Thoughts On the Fertilization of Annual Bluegrass Putting Greens by Robert L. Green, Ph.D. and Grant J. Klein, M.A., University of California, Riverside

Radko - Have we gone too far with low nitrogen on greens?

Shuman - Phosphate and nitrate movement through simulated golf greens.

Shearman - Potassium--a miracle element?

¶Snyder - Nitrogen/Potassium Fertilization Ratios for Bermudagrass Turf
¶Rodriquez - Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy to Schedule Nitrogen Applications on Dwarf-Type Bermudagras
Chemicals & Health in Golf

Buchanan - Nutrients affect color and vigor of turfgrasses.

Skorulski - Unlocking the mysteries: interpreting a soil nutrient test for sand-based greens.

Green Fertilizing for Crisis

Engel - The six seasonal stages of bentgrass nitrogen fertilization.

Nutrient Balance & Disease

Zontek - Managing fertility in high-sand-content greens.

Hummel - Fertilizing greens with secondary elements and micronutrients.

BioCycle - New approach to the green. (fetilizer disease suppression)

Brown - Nitrogen losses from golf greens.

Fertilizing Bermudagrass Greens

TurfFax May-Jun 1999 - Higher-density Turfgrass & Nitrogen Needs

Elliott - Effect of organic nitrogen fertilizers on microbial populations associated with bermudagrass putting greens.

Schmidt - Bentgrass growth in relation to soil properties of Typic Hapludalfs soil variously modified for a golf green.

Rieke - Maintaining adequate phosphorus levels in sand greens.

Fry - Creeping bentgrass response to P and K on a sand medium

Brauen - Leaching of nitrate from sand putting greens.

Soil pH Management

The Basics of Turfgrass Fertilization

Pepper - Growth of bentgrass as affected by nitrogen, soil pH and age of stand.

Kussow - Peat in greens: knowns, unknowns and speculations.

Karnok - High pH treatments and the alleviation of soil hydrophobicity on golf greens.

McCarty - Plant nutrition, fertilizers and fertilizer programs for Florida golf courses.

Lodge - Fertiliser nutrition of sand golf greens. VI. Cover and botanical composition.

†Lodge - Fertiliser nutrition of sand golf greens. VII. Rootzone chemical composition.

†Canaway - Fertiliser nutrition of sand golf greens. I. Establishment and pre-wear results.

Lodge - The construction, irrigation and fertiliser nutrition of golf greens. I. Botanical and reflectance assessments after establishment and during the first year of differential irrigation and nutrition treatments.

†Lodge - The construction, irrigation and fertiliser nutrition of golf greens. II. Playing quality during the first year of differential irrigation and nutrition treatments.

Phosphorous and Potassium Fertilizers Influence Establishment of Bermudagrass

‡Turfgrass Soil Fertility and Chemical Problems: Assessment and Management

Irrigation Journal-Nov/Dec 2000 - Fertigation in your future
 
California Fairways - Sep/Oct 96 - Fertigation Strategies
PGRs

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were introduced more than 40 years ago for application to utility turfs to reduce mowing requirements by inhibiting turfgrass shoot growth.

Turfgrass Trends, Plant Growth Regulator articles

Turfgrass Trends, Users Drive Research Into New Growth Regulator Applications

USGA GR (Jan 2002): Ball Mark Recovery as Influenced By Growth Regulators and Bio-Stimulants

USGA GR (Sep 2001): Creative Uses for Plant Growth Regulators

USGA GR (Nov 1997): Exploring the Use of Plant Growth Regulators to Reduce Winter Injury on Annual Bluegrass(Poa annua L)

Bigelow - Creeping Bentgrass & PGRs (Thesis)

Hawes - Pencross Creeping Bentgrass Growth (Diss.)

Rice - Penncross Creeping Bentgrass - pH, topdressing, cultivation (Diss.)

Mazur - Influence of plant growth regulators on transition of bermudagrass putting green overseeded with perennial ryegrass.

Johnson - Influence of plant growth regulators on transition of a bermudagrass golf green overseeded with perennial ryegrass.

Growth regulators, Bermudagrass, and Weeds

Plant Growth Retardants for Fine Turf and Roadsides/Utilities J.B. Unruh and B.J. Brecke

Plant Growth Regulators on Bentgrass Putting Green Turf

Purdue TURF TIP 5/14/03 Growth Regulators for Golf Courses

Johnson - Suppression of a perennial subspecies of annual bluegrass (Poa annua spp. reptans) in a creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) green with plant growth regulators.

Aerification

Turfgrass Trends, Aerification articles

Turgeon - Aeration

USGA GR: Why do you want to aerate when I'm trying to play golf (Mar 2006)

USGA GR: Surface Organic Matter in Bentgrass Greens (aeration) (Jan 2004)

USGA GR (May 1996): Shallow Aeration: Deeper is Not Always Better

USGA GR (May 1993): 'O Holey Night'

Why aerate greens - USGA Video

Why aeration is necessary - USGA video

Purdue TURF TIP 9/16/03 Watch those tines!

Purdue Turf Tip 9-10-04: Late summer aerification check-list

USGA GR (Mar 2003): Aeration and Topdressing for the 21st Century

USGA GR (May 2003): Core Aeration by the Numbers

USGA GR (Jan 1999): Orange Barrels and Putting Green Aerification

Mazur - Influence of aeration, topdressing, and vertical mowing on overseeded bermudagrass putting green turf.

McWhirter - Effect of vertical mowing and aerification on golf green quality.

Brauen - Long-term aerification.

USGA GR (May 1994): O'Brien - Blockbuster aerification.

Why Aerify? - GCSAA

Aeration - When To Do It

Skorulski - Core cultivation: too much of a good thing?

†Liu - Core cultivation and efficacy of benomyl applied to creeping bentgrass.

Regional News - Southeast - Core Aerification by the Numbers By Chris Hartwiger and Patrick O'Brien

Spomer - Golf green soil amendment: controlling soil water and aeration.

Brame - Yellow barrels and putting green aerification.

Greens Aerification

Zontek - Shallow aeration: deeper is not always better.

Airing it out

Connolly -'O Holey night. (aeration)

Murphy - Core cultivation of a putting green with hollow and solid tines.

Gilhuly - Shake, rattle, and roll. (aeration, rolling, poa annua)

Topdressing

See also Condition (Yellow, Top Menu)

Turgeon - Cultivation

Golfdom, Superintendents Should Choose Topdressing Machines Wisely

Golfdom, Take charge of your topdressing

Foy - The one-man topdressing operation.

Taylor - Late Fall Topdressing - U Wisconsin

USGA GR (Mar 2003): Aeration and Topdressing for the 21st Century

USGA GR (Sep 1995): A Successful Topdressing Program Requires Consistency, Commitment, and Communication

USGA GR (May 1993): Filling Aerator Holes Completely

Mazur - Influence of aeration, topdressing, and vertical mowing on overseeded bermudagrass putting green turf.

Intensive Sand Topdressing

An Evaluation of Several Topdressing Practices

Putting green responses to sand topdresssing

USGA - Topdressing mixtures.

Purdue TURF TIP 3/26/04 Dormant Sand Topdressing. Does it help Creeping Bentgrass Spring Green-up?

Verma - Prepare your own topdressing.

Cedrone - We built a truckster-mounted topdresser.

Topdressing with sand

Decade of sand topdressing

Greens Topdressing Approaches

Ferguson - The soils controversy--mixes for green construction and topdressing Golf course grass.

Gilhuly - Dressing up for the 1990s! (topdressing)

Sand Size for Topdressing Golf Greens

Pros and Cons of Frequent Sand Topdressing

Pros and Cons of Frequent Sand Topdressing

A Century of Change in Topdressing

Vavrek - A successful topdressing program requires consistency, commitment, and communication.

Topdressing Golf Greens

Hartwiger - A shower a day fills the holes ok. (topdressing)

Foy - Working the topdressing in and rolling greens revisited.

Blow in the Topdressing at Hobe Sound

Topdresser settings

Cooper - Putting green responses to sand and sand/soil topdressing.

Zontek - Topdressing putting greens: a panel duscussion.

Ferguson - From the worm's eye view, topdressing.

†Gross - Topdressing your way to better greens.

Latham - Topdressing operations that vibrate.

Vavrek - Another cover-up: an inexpensive, effective way to maintain dry topdressing.

Oatis - Sanding and sweeping.

†Streich - Topdressing and ball roll.

Watering in Aerified Topdressing

Latham - The agronomics of sand in construction of topdressing.
Turfgrass soil management research

Zontek - Filling aerator holes completely, the first time.

Thatch
Turgeon - Thatch / Edaphology

Turgeon - Cultivation

Thatch Prevention and Control; G85-751-A (Nebraska)

Callahan - Cultural and chemical controls of thatch and their influence on rootzone nutrients in a bentgrass green.

¶Callahan - Cultural and chemical controls of thatch and their influence on rootzone nutrients in a bentgrass green

Dethatching Bent at Pinehurst

Chamberlain - Thatch biodegradation and antifungal activities of two lignocellulolytic Streptomyces strains in laboratory cultures and in golf green turfgrass.

Zontek - Answering the most-asked questions about thatch.

Gilhuly - Fake right, throw left! (thatch, aeration)

Callahan - Comparative methods of measuring thatch on a creeping bentgrass green.

Verticutting

Turgeon - Cultivation

Golfdom, The value of verticutting

USGA GR: Grain on the Brain (Nov 2005)

Mazur - Influence of aeration, topdressing, and vertical mowing on overseeded bermudagrass putting green turf.

McWhirter - Effect of vertical mowing and aerification on golf green quality.

Against the Grain

Against the Grain

Air Circulation

USGA GR (Jul 1996): Optimizing The Turfgrass Canopy Environment With Fans Fans can help overcome poor growing environments. by Patrick M. O'Brien

Subsurface Cooling

Creeping Bentgrass Response to Sub-Surface Air Movement - Power Point Presentation

Turfgrass Management Information - Subsurface Cooling

Hot town cool bentgrass - Wildwing Plantation

Subsurface Cooling & Aeration at Wildwing Plantation - Photos

Turf Quality Better with Cooling and Aeration at WildWing Research Green

Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) response to inflated soil CO2 - Power Point Presentation

Damage

Dealing with Vandalism

Golfdom, So much for scalping

Pierson - Just one more little crisis (hail damage)

Green Damage Repair

TurfFax Jul-Aug 1999 - Petroleum Spills

Snow - The triplex "ring".

Understanding and Managing Mechanical Damage - Are you hurting your greens without knowing it?

USGA GR (Sep 2003): PGA Touring Pros Evaluate Putting Greens for Spike Damage

USGA GR (Jul 2003): Ball Marks on Bentgrass: Blame the Golfer, Not the Cultivar

USGA GR (May 1997): Ring Management - A useful tip to help you get rid of mower ring around the collar.

See also Conditions > Ball Marks & Spike Marks (Yellow, Top Menu)

Resodding / Regrassing

USGA GR: Making a Change: The Why, When, and How to's of Regrassing Bermudagrass Greens (Jan 2003)

Golfdom, Time to kill that turf -- regrassing old greens

USGA GR (Mar 2003): Putting Green Regrassing and So Much More

Nelson - Sew it seams: old parts can become useful tools for sodding putting greens.

Creep & Shrinkage

USGA GR (Jan 2001): Do You Have Green Creep?

USGA (Mar 1996): Control Those Shrinking Greens - Pay close attention to avoid those slow, incremental changes. by Keith Happ

Green Creep Over the Years

†Happ - Control those shrinking greens.