Geoff Mangum's PuttingZone Research

Sample Section: 1.05.04.

2001 Geoff Mangum. All rights reserved.

1.05.04., .-- , -- PHYSIOLOGY / -- NEUROLOGY / -- BIOCHEMISTRY / -- BRAIN, , ,

1.05.04., Abeles, M., Corticonics, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991), ,

1.05.04., Adelman, George, ed., Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, (Cambridge, MA: Birkhauser Boston, 2 vols., 1987), ,

1.05.04., Amit, D.J., Modeling Brain Function, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989), ,

1.05.04., Andersen, R.A.; Essick, G.K. & Siegel, R.M., Encoding of spatial location by posterior parietal neurons, Sci., 230(4724), 25 Oct 1985, 456-458, a gaze coordinated with head position so that head orientation and gaze orientation are directed to the object stimulus yields maximal neuronal firing in inferior parietal spatial analysis neurons [i.e., a direct look is best]; visual sensitivity of the retinotopic receptive fields changes systematically with the angle of gaze, and neuron activity may be described as the product of a gain factor that is a function of eye position and the response profile of the receptive field; thus, there is an eye-position dependent tuning of the field for locations in head-centered coordinate space.

1.05.04., Applewhite, Philip B., Molecular Gods: How Molecules Determine Our Behavior, (Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981), ,

1.05.04., Arib, M.A., ed., The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995), ,

1.05.04., Asimov, Isaac, The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), , 3: brain conceived as seat of thought, receiver of sensation, and initiator of motion; 6: body has electrical messages of nervous system & chemical messages of bloodstream; 9: every amino acid has 5 parts, a central carbon C to which are attached the other 4; an amine group NH2; a carbolic acid group COOH; a hydrogen H; and a side chain designated R; only the R differs in the various amino acids; amino acids have 10-30 molecules and are the basic components of proteins that make up hormones and other fundamental molecules; 10-12: over two dozen amino acids in proteins but 21 are really common: glycine gly, alanine ala, valine val, leucine leu, asparagine, asp-NH2, aspartic acid asp, glutamine glu-NH2, glutamic acid glu, isoleucine ileu, proline pro, phenylalanine phe, tyrosine tyr, tryptophan try, serine ser, threonine thr, lysine lys, histidine his, arginine arg, methionine met, cystine cy-S-, cysteine cy-SH; islets of Langerhans in pancreas produce insulin; carbohydrates in food are broken down to fuels, mostly glucose, and this would make blood too thick if concentration in bloodstream not regulated by insulin and liver; glucose is taken to liver where it is converted to glycogen and stored; glucose in bloodstream is absorbed by cells for energy; if bloodstream conc. dips too low, liver converts glycogen back to glucose and fills gap; as bloodstream conc. gets too high, pancreas sends in insulin to break down some glucose; when conc. gets back to normal, insulinase breaks down insulin in bloodstream and stops insulin's breaking down glucose; diabetes is a malfunctioning of islets of Langerhans and an external source of insulin is required, but timing of administrations is not finely tuned by blood chemistry; in islets, lager alpha cells on outside produce glucagon while inner smaller beta cells produce insulin; glucagon converts glycogen to glucose; insulin 51 amino acids in 2 groups; glucagon 29 amino acids.

1.05.04., Asimov, Isaac, The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), , 40: epinephrine or adrenaline from medulla of adrenal gland on top of kidneys; epin. is derived from tyrosine; in fight-or-flight situations, epin. aids with glucose supply by breaking down glycogen in muscles for a private emergency energy supply; also affects blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate; 50: thyroid regulates basal metabolic rate (BMR); hyperthyroidism = high BMR; hypothyroidism = low BMR; thyroxin regulates oxygen utilization rate and is derived from tyrosine with four iodine atoms; a low level of thyroid hormone = low BMR and vice versa; the pituitary gland's anterior lobe produces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to regulate thyroid in the thyroid-pituitary axis; parathyroid gland produces hormone that liberates calcium from bone for use as CA+ ions for muscle and nerve action & blood coagulation; removal of gland produces death by tetany; parathy. hormone is like glucagon producing glucose from glycogen in liver; proper conc. is 9-11 mg percent CA+; there are roughly 6.5 lbs. (3 kg) CA+ in bone but only 0.01 oz (250 mg) CA+ in blood; 1200 times more in bone; process also liberates phosphate ions from bone along with CA+; phosphate ions leave via urine; parathy. also produces calcitonin that mops up excess CA+ in blood; posterior lobe of pituitary gland reg. water conc.; water loss from perspiration, breath, urine, feces; kidneys filter blood and flood impurities out with water; but water is reabsorbed in tubules and recycled; vasopressin is antidiueretic hormone of poster. lobe that increases tubules uptake of water, thus concentrating urine and darkening its color; also increases blood pressure by constricting vessels.

1.05.04., Asimov, Isaac, The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), , 67: all hormones either amino acids or steroids; cholesterol is part of sterol family of alcohols (-OH) with 3 hexagonal C rings and 1 pentagonal C ring and a side chain off pentagon; 80% weight of brain is water, & of other 20%, 1/6th is cholesterol or 3% of total weight of brain; other steroids are bile acids for digestion of fats; a double-bond cholesterol that liberates vitamin D in ultraviolet light for bone deposition; adrenal cortex steroids (corticoids) the glycocorticoids corticosterone and cortisone and the mineralocorticoids deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone; anter. lobe of pituitary regs. adrenal cortex output with ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone; stress stimulates ACTH output which in turn stimulates adrenal cortex output; corticoid level in blood also regs. ACTH output; corticosterone helps store glucose as glycogen in liver; anter. lobe of pituitary produces growth hormone; steroid sex hormones produced by gonads (testicles or ovaries); androgens androsterone and testosterone and estrogens estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone; adrenal cortex also produces male sex hormones; anter. lobe of pituitary regs. gonads with FSH follicle-stimulatinf hormone for eggs and sperm and LH lutenizing hormone (aka ICSH interstitial-cell stimulating hormone) for egg release and testosterone production; lactogenic hormone or prolactin for breast growth and milk after birth; HCG human chorionic gonadotrophin produced by placenta and appears in urine in 2nd month to allow pregnancy test.

1.05.04., Asimov, Isaac, The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), , 117: cell membranes are semipermeable; water and oxygen pass freely but other ions and molecules do not; diffusion from relative concentrations and active transport are two ways substances cross membrane; Na+ 10x higher in extracellular fluid than intracellular fluid; K+ 30x higher inside; sodium pump keeps excess concentration in place; expulsion of Na+ builds up + charge outside and - charge inside; neg. charge holds excess K+ inside; end result is slight neg. charge inside; 0.07 volts or 70 millivolts [1 millivolt=1/1000th volt]; house current is 120, 000 milivolts [120 volts] or about 1700x ntion; local depolarization causes a wave of depolarization along membrane and repolarization causes a subsequent wave in same way; depolarization wave in muscle travels at 0.5 to 3 m/s; electric eel develops 600-700 volts and discharges up to 300 times per second at first then drops to 50/s for a long time; a visible nerve is actually a bundle of nerve fibers (axons); axons are microscopically but may be several feet long; nerve impulses can travel both directions along a nerve fiber but usually start at dendrites into cell body then along axon away from cell body; fine nerve impulses at under 2 m/s; smallest nerves 0.5 microns diameter, 5/10, 000th mm while largest 20 microns diameter, 2/100th mm, 40x range with 1600x larger cross-sectional area; cockroach has nerve thicker than man; squid has largest.

1.05.04., Asimov, Isaac, The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), , 129: some cells are surrounded by Schwann cells to form myelin sheaths in sections separated by nodes of Ranvier; fat of sheath insulates and prevents current (ion flow) from crossing into or out of membrane; sheath has 2/5th cholesterol molecules, 2/5th phosphatides (phosphorus-containing fat molecule), and 1/5th cerebroside (a complex-sugar containing fatlike molecule), with small quantities of other substances; sheath also supports structural integrity of axon; accelerates nerve impulse; a nerve of a given diameter transmits impulse much faster when sheathed with myelin; myelinated nerve in mammals at about Ranvier; fat of sheath insulates and prevents current (ion flow) from crossing into or out of membrane; sheath has 2/5th cholesterol molecules, 2/5th phosphatides (phosphorus-containing fat molecule), and 1/5th cerebroside (a complex-sugar containing fatlike molecule), with small quantities of other substances; sheath also supports structural integrity of axon; accelerates nerve impulse; a nerve of a given diameter transmits impulse much faster when sheathed with myelin; myelinated nerve in mammals at about 100 m/s or length of 6' man in 1/50th s (0.02 s); myelination not complete at birth and baby doesn't see until optic nerve covered and doesn't walk until leg nerves covered; multiple sclerosis is degeneration of myelin; nerve impulse causes reaction in nerve membrane between acetic acid and choline to form acetylcholine, which alters sodium pump and allows depolarization of nerve membrane; cholinesterase soaks up acetylcholine after depolarization and breaks it back to acetic acid and choline; very fast reaction cycle; substances that stop cholinterase stop nerve impulses; acetylcholine usually liberated at synapse at end of axon and crosses to depolarize dendrites of next nerve; electrical impulse is too weak to cross gap and chemical process takes over; no current flows through cell network, only along single cells; a nerve connects with a muscle at a sarcolemma and the synapse is a gap called neuromuscular junction where acetylcholine depolarizes muscle membrane; a motor unit is one nerve and all muscle fibers contacted by branches of nerve; cholinesterase inhibitors cause paralysis by blocking muscle firing including heart; nerve gases and alkaloids like curare and toadstool toxins; an injured axon can regenerate unless it lacks a neurilemma or cell body is destroyed.

1.05.04., Asimov, Isaac, The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), , 136: firing of nerve is all-or-none; threshold stimulus produces max. response; nerve impulse is either max. strength or none at all; larger diameter fibers have lower thresholds so weaker impulses cause firing; muscles receive combinations of nerves with different diameters and thresholds; as stimulus rises, more nerves with smaller diameters start to fire and more motor units contract; refractory period between nerve firings; but timing of firings may come before muscle completes relaxation, so next impulse starts contraction with a headstart; so the faster impulses arrive, the greater the contraction; refractory period limits firing rate; small fibers have refr. per. 1/250th s & fire up to 250 Hz; large myelinated fibers fire up to 10x faster (2500 Hz); combination of various-diameter nerves and various firing rates yields very precise fine control of muscle contractions.

1.05.04., Asimov, Isaac, The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), , 139: unicellular lifeforms have membranes that react to stimuli; multicellular creatures have nerve systems that serve as supermembranes with various degrees of complexity to react to stimuli; coelenterates (hydra & jellyfish) have a network of nerves that simply communicate external stimuli to whole animal, so response is undifferentiated; flatworms have a pair of nerve cords running the length of the body with branches for receiving or transmitting impulses along the way; a central nervous system diverts an external impulse from being shared with the whole body and thus allows specialization of the body for functions; bilateral symmetry is an advance over radial symmetry and allows preferred direction of movement and then cephalization for concentrating environment-testing functions in head area; the brain is an enlargement of the nerve cord in the head area; in most phyla, the double nerve cord persists and is ventrally located (abdomen); in the Phylum Chordata (only) a single neural tube is located dorsally; phylum Chordates, subphyla. Vertebrates, class Mammals, order Primates, suborder Anthropoidae, group Catarrhina, family Hominidae, species Homo sapiens; vertebrates have neural cord protected in enclosure of spine and have triune brain with three swellings; skull is vertebrate armor that formerly covered whole body; gain in speed from internalizing amour; vertebrate brain has olfactory lobes, cerebrum lobes, thalamus, optic lobes, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata; fish & amphibians rely on smell; birds on sight; reptiles have larger cerebrums to deal with muscles required to fight gravity on land with more rapid coordination of muscle action; neopallium of reptile brain processes sensations other than smell; mammals from reptiles have greatly advanced neopallium; primitive mammals have neopalliums covering top half of cerebral cortex; as body size increased cerebrum and neopallium increased; in recent large mammals cortex became all neopallium and cortex wrinkled to fit in skull.

1.05.04., Asimov, Isaac, The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), , 148: largest mammals elephants and whales have largest brains but are not the most intelligent; brain/body-mass ratio is optimal in primates; 70M years ago primates evolved from Order Insectivora; arboreal much more difficult than water, air, or land; muscle coordination with frontal eyes and grasping limbs de-emphasized snouts and smell in favor of sight; Of all the senses, sight delivers information to the brain at the highest rate of speed and in the most complex fashion. (152); Platyrrhina (New World monkeys) have prehensile tails that reduce importance of eye; hind legs adapted for standing forced brain to be more intelligent; orangutan brain 340 g (12 oz); chimpanzee 380 g (13.5 oz); gorilla 540 g (19 oz or 1.25 lbs.); human about 1450 g (3.25 lbs.); frontal lobe developed in modern man; at birth human brain about 350 g (12 oz) and grows to 1450 g; Anatole France only 1200 g; Ivan Turgenev over 2000 g; typical human ratio 1:50; 150 lb. man with 3.25 lb. brain; chimp 1:150; gorilla 1:500; elephants 6000 g (about 13 lbs.) and whales up to 9000 g (nearly 19 lbs.); elephant 1:1000; whale 1:10, 000; some dolphins and porpoises weigh about the same as man but have larger more convoluted brains at 1700 g.

1.05.04., Austin, James A., Zen and the Brain, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999), ,

1.05.04., Austin, James A., Zen and the Brain: Towards an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999), ,

1.05.04., Bailey, Charles W., The Brain and Golf, (1923), ,

1.05.04., Barr, M.L., The Human Nervous System, (New York: Harper & Row, 1974), ,

1.05.04., Bastian, G., The Nervous System, (NY: Addison Wesley, 1993), ,

1.05.04., Black, Ira B., Information in the Brain: A Molecular Perspective, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991), ,

1.05.04., Boutcher, S.H. & Zinsser, N.W., Cardiac deceleration of elite and beginning golfers during putting, J. of Sport & Exercise Psychol., 12(1), Mar 1990, 37-47, Champaign, IL

1.05.04., Braitenberg, V. & Schuz, A., Anatomy of the Cortex, (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1991), ,

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1.05.04., Churchland, Patricia S., Neurophilosophy: Toward a Unified Science of the Mind/Body, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986), , good on cerebellum for changing cortex plan into executable pattern of nerve firings

1.05.04., Churchland, Patricia S. & Sejnowski, Terrence J., The Computational Brain, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), ,

1.05.04., Cohn, Patrick J. & Winters, Robert K., The Mental Art of Putting: Using Your Mind to Putt Your Best--The Psychology of Great Putting, (South Bend, IN: Diamond Communications, Inc., 1995), , 79: The fight-or-flight response has evolved as a survival mechanism to help humans cope with threat or danger. This response occurs when we feel threatened, either physically or psychologically. ... To help us cope, the body releases chemicals into the bloodstream. Physiologically, a surge of adrenaline and other chemicals are instantaneously released and sent to the muscle groups to increase energy and sharpen attention. All of this happens so you can battle the stressor.

1.05.04., Constantine-Paton, Martha & Law, Margaret I., The development of maps and stripes in the brain, In Llinas, Rodolfo R., ed., The Workings of the Brain: Development, Memory, and Perception, (New York: William H. Freeman, 1990), ch 4, pp. 59-74,

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1.05.04., Cowan, W. Maxwell, The development of the brain, In Llinas, Rodolfo R., ed., The Workings of the Brain: Development, Memory, and Perception, (New York: William H. Freeman, 1990), ch 3, pp. 39-57,

1.05.04., Cowan, W.M., The development of the brain, Sci. Am., 241 (1979): 112-133,

1.05.04., Crews, Debra J., The influence of age on attentional patterns in golf putting, Paper presented at the American College of Sports medicine, Dallas, TX, May 1992,

1.05.04., Crews, Debra J., The Influence of Attentive States on Golf Putting as Indicated by Cardiac and Electrocortical Activity, (Eugene, OR: Microform Publications, Coll. of Human Dev. & Performance, Univ. of Ore., 1991; Tempe, AZ: Ariz. State Univ., Ph.D. in Exercise Sci., 1990), , 3 microfiche; 235 frames

1.05.04., Crews, Debra J. & Boutcher, S.H., An exploratory observational behavioral analysis of professional golfers during competition, J. of Sports Behavior, 9, 1986, 51-58,

1.05.04., Crews, Debra J. & Landers, D.M., Cardiac pattern response to incentive and to visual and auditory perturbation of an automatically produced sport skill, Ms submitted for publication, 1993, cited in Crews, in Science in Golf II, p 137

1.05.04., Crews, Debra J. & Landers, D.M., Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exercise, 25(1), Jan 1993, 116-126, 34 highly skilled golfers tested with EEG measures of motor & temporal cotices in 3 seconds prior to putt of 40 trials to 12-foot putt. Slow shift, 40 Hz, and relative power spectrum representing readiness to respond, focused arousal, and general cortical activity showed decrease in L hemisphere motor cortex activity as golfer prepared to putt; R hemisphere motor & temporal cortices showed increased relative power; in last 1 sec., R hemisphere showed alpha activity increase associated with less error; hemispheric differentiation decreased; small, significant differences between motor and temporal cortices in alpha band: motor cortex L hemi. alpha increased while temporal cortex R hemi. alpha increased as putt approached. Handedness may explain differences in present study from earlier studies.

1.05.04., Crews, Debra J. & Landers, D.M., Heart rate and respiration pattern in the golf putt, Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 21, 1989, S60,

1.05.04., Crews, Debra J.; Martin, J.; Hart, E.A.; & Piparo, A.J., The effects of EEG biofeedback, relaxation, and imagery training on golf putting performance, Paper presented at the North American Society of Sport and Physical Activity, Asilomar, CA, June 1991,

1.05.04., Crews, Debra J.; Thomas, G.; Shirreffs, J.H. & Helfrich, H.M., A physiological profile of Ladies Professional Golf Association players, Physician & Sportsmedicine, 12(5), May 1984, 69-74, 72-73, 76, Minneapolis, MN

1.05.04., Critchley, M., The Parietal Lobes, (New York: Hafner, 1953), ,

1.05.04., Crutcher, M.D. & DeLong, M.R., Single cell studies of the primate putamen, I: Functional organization, Exp. Brain Res., 53, 1984, 233-243,

1.05.04., Crutcher, M.D. & DeLong, M.R., Single cell studies of the primate putamen, I: Relations to direction of movement and pattern of muscular activity, Exp. Brain Res., 53, 1984, 244-258,

1.05.04., Damarjian, Nicole M., Effect of Heart Rate Deceleration Biofeedback Training on Golf Putting Performance, (Eugene, OR: Microform Publications, Int'l Inst. for Sport & Human Performance, Univ. of Ore., 1993; Greensboro, NC: Univ. of NC at Greensboro, M.S., 1992), , 1 microfiche; heart rate deceleration (phasic biofeedback) vs. lowered heart rate level (tonic biofeedback): no significant difference; no support for proposition that HR deceler. group experienced lowered HR during 4 secs. before putt; further research needed.

1.05.04., Davis, Joel, Mapping the Mind: The Secrets of the Human Brain and How It Works, (Seacaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1997), ,

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1.05.04., Haultain, Arnold, The Mystery of Golf, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1908; new ed., NY: Serendipity Press, 1965, with foreword by Herbert Warren Wind; repr Sandwich, MA: Chapman Billies, Inc., 1997), , 70: To begin at the bottom then, if the physiologists are not all wrong, to excel in golf requires first of all a good brain. 70-73: copora striata translates volition into action & cerebellum governs coordination of movements; associative memory by practice to engrain automatic habits or muscle memory.

1.05.04., Hostetler, A., Smart brains work better, not harder, Am. Psychological Ass'n Monitor, 19(5), 1988, 15, Brain EEG spectral power depends upon the task complexity being performed and also on the skill level of the performer, such that high brain metabolism indicates inefficient, unskilled use of the brain.

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1.05.04., Konttinen, N.; Lyytinen, H. & Konttinen, R., Brain slow potentials reflecting successful shooting performance, Res. Q. for Exercise & Sport, 66(1), Mar 1995, 64-72, Studying event-related potentials (ERPs) by separating these EEG signals from normal EEG noise thru EEG signal averaging, the researchers sought insight into covert cognitive psychophysiological phenomenon associated with sharpshooting skills of aiming/rifle hold and pulling the trigger, with the trgger-pull events being covert in the sense that they could not be objectively observed or consciously described. The slow potentials of ERPs associated with longer-duration activity versus immediate stimuli processing are thought to relate to neural activity as follows: negative SP with increasing activation or arousal, and positive SP with decreasing activation. The results indicated the superior marksmen in the preshoot preparatory phase are able to refrain from irrelevant motor activity (frontal positivity) and concomitantly concentrate on visual-spatial processing (right-side negativity). That is, you need some right-brain aim/visual-spatial control to make the move. Crews, D. & Landers, D., Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 1 (1993), pp116-26, have related the laterality effect to the golfer's ability to reduce distracting cognitions (i.e., left-brain processing). That is, shut up the left when you putt. See also Posner, M., The attention system of the human brain, Annual Review in Neuroscience, vol. 13 (1990), pp25-42, arguing that the right-sided lateralization of the SP negativity is associated with the visual-spatial action.

1.05.04., Kutas, Marta & Dale, Anders, Electrical and magnetic readings of mental functions, In Rugg, Michael, ed., Cognitive Neuroscience, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), 197-242,

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1.05.04., McLean, Jim & Pirozzolo, Fran, The Putter's Pocket Companion, (New York: Harper-Collins Publishers, 1994), , 59: if done properly, your preshot putting routine will promote an effortless reduction in heart rate. Try taking two deep breaths a few seconds before you putt. Research shows that good putters are more in tune with their bodies and can attain a more relaxed, confident approach.

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