Geoff Mangum's PuttingZone Research

Sample Section:, .-- , -- -- VISUAL NEUROLOGY / -- VISUAL PERCEPTION / -- VISUAL COGNITION, , ,, Adams, J., Visual perception of direction and number in right and left visual fields, Cortex, 7, 1977, 227-235,, Arundale, K., An investigation into the variation of human contrast sensitivity with age and pathology, Brit. J. Opthal., 62, 1978, 214,, Atkinson, J. & Egeth, H., Right hemisphere superiority in visual orientation matching, Canadian J. Psychology, 27, 1973, 152-158,, Bach-y-Rita, P. & Collins, C.C., eds., The Control of Eye Movements, (NY: Academic Press, 1971), ,, Bach-y-Rita, Paul; Collins, Carter C. & Hyde, Jane E., eds., The Control of Eye Movements, (New York: Academic Press, 1971), ,, Barlow, H.B., David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel: Their contributions toward understanding the visual cortex, Trends in Neurosci., (May 1982): 145-152,, Benton, A.L.; Hannay, J. & Varney, N.R., Visual perception of line direction in patients with unilateral brain disease, Neurology, 25, 1975, 907-910,, Berlucchi, G.; Brizzolara, D.; Marzi, C.A.; Rizzolatti, G. & Umilta, C., The role of stimulus discriminability and verbal codability in hemispheric specialization for visuospatial tasks, Neuropsychologia, 17, 1979, 195-202,, Blythe, I.M., Bromley, J.H., Kennard, C. & Ruddock, K.H., Visual discrimination of target displacement remains after damage to the striate cortex in humans, Nature, 20, 1986, 619-621,, Blythe, I.M., Kennard, C., Ruddock, K.H., Residual vision in patients with retrogeniculate lesions of the visual pathways, Brain, 110, 1987, 887-905,, Bridgeman, B., Conscious vs. unconscious processes: the case of vision, Theory & Psychology, 2, 1992, 73-88,, Brooks, Barbara A. & Bajandas, Frank J., eds., Eye Movements: Proceedings of the ARVO Symposium on Eye Movements, Univ. of Texas Health Sci. Center, San Antonio, Texas, 29-30 Oct. 1976, (New York: Plenum Press, 1977), ,, Bullier, J., Girard, P. & Salin, P.A., The role of area 17 in the transfer of information to extrastriate visual cortex, Cerebral Cortex, 10, 1994, 301-330,, Carmon, A. & Bechtholdt, H.P., Dominance of the right cerebral hemisphere for stereopsis, Neuropsychologia, 7, 1969, 29-40,, Carterette, E.D. & Friedman, M.P., eds., Handbook of Perception, Vol. 5: Seeing, (1975), , visual pathway, Chen, L., Topological structure in visual perception, Sci., 218(4573), 12 Nov 1982, 699-700, 699: When we speak of objects in a picture, we usually imply that they are connected. The visual system was more sensitive to the topological distinction between a connected component with a hole (a ring) and one with no hole. Extraction by visual processing of general topological properties (connectedness, holes, etc.) is a basic factor in perceptual organization., Corballis, Michael C., Perceptual functions, In Zaidel, Dahlia W., ed., Neuropsychology, (San Diego: Academic Press, 1994), ch. 4,, Corin, M.S. & Bender, M.B., Mislocalization in visual space, Arch. Neurology, 27, 1972, 252-262,, Crick, Francis & Koch, C., Are we aware of neural activity in primary visual cortex?, Nature, 375, 1995, 121-123,, Damasio, A.R. & Benton, L.A., Impairment of hand movements under visual guidance, Neurology, 29, 1979, 170-174,, Danta, G.; Hilton, R.C. & O'Boyle, D.J., Hemispheric function and binocular depth perception, Brain, 101, 1978, 569-590,, Davidoff, J.B., Differences in Visual Perception: The Individual Eye, (NY: Academic Press, 1975), ,, Davson, Hugh, Physiology of the Eye, (New York: Pergammon Press, 5th ed., 1990), , Ch 14: Visual acuity, pp373-394; Sec 3: Visual perception, pp444-644; Ch 17: Visual perception: Intro., includes Stereoscopic depth perception, pp465-475; & The perception of motion, pp481-485., Davson, Hugh, The Eye, (New York: Academic Press, 1962), ,, Denny-Brown, D.; Yanagisawa, N. & Kirk, E.J., The localization of hemispheric mechanisms of visually directed reaching and grasping, In Zulch, K.J.; Creutzfeld, O. & Galbraith, G.C., ds., Cerebral Localization, (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1975),, DeValois, R.L., Contributions of different lateral geniculate cell types to visual behavior, Vision Res., 11 (1971): 383-396,, Dowling, John E., The Retina -- An Approachable Part of the Brain, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1987), ,, Dowling, John E., Understanding the retina, In Corsi, Pietro, ed., The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience, (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1991), 289-298,, Durnford, M. & Kimura, D., Right hemisphere specialization for depth perception reflected in visual field differences, Nature, 231, 1971, 394-395,, Eberlin, P. & Mulholland, T., Bilateral differences in parietal-occipital EEG induced by contingent visual feedback, Psychophysiology, 13, 1976, 212-218,, Ekman, G. & Junge, K., Psychophysical relations in visual perception of length, area and volume, Scand. J. Psychology, 2, 1961, 1-10,, Enoch, Jay M., Vision problems in aging patients: An overview, In Rosenbloom, Jr., Alfred A. & Morgan, Meredith W., eds., Vision and Aging: General and Clinical Perspectives, (New York: Fairchild Publications, 1986), ch 8, 77-82,, Ettlinger, G., Parietal cortex in visual orientation, In Rose, F. Clifford, ed., Physiological Aspects of Clinical Neurology, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1977),, Faglioni, P.; Scotti, G. & Sprinnler, H., The performances of brain-damaged patients in spatial localization of visual and tactile stimuli, Brain, 94, 1971, 443-454,, Faillenot, I., Toni, I., Decety, J., Gregoire, M.C. & Jeannerod, M., Visual pathways for object-oriented action and object identification: Functional anatomy with PET, Cerebral Cortex, 1998,, Farah, Martha J., Visual Agnosia, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), ,, Farah, Martha J. & Ratcliff, G., eds., The Neuropsychology of High-level Vision, (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994), ,, Fisher, D.; Monty, R. & Senders, J., eds., Eye Movements: Cognition and Visual Perception, (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assocs., 1981), ,, Fontenot, D.J. & Benton, A.L., Perception of direction in the right and left visual fields, Neuropsychologia, 10, 1972, 447-452,, Franco, L. & Sperry, R.W., Hemisphere lateralization for cognitive processing of geometry, Neuropsychologia, 15, 1977, 107-114,, Freeman, W.J., The physiology of perception, Sci. Am., 264(2), Feb 1991, 78-85, phase portraits of senses show disorder in rest state and a significant gain in orderliness during perception of familiar smells, sights, senses, etc., Frisby, John P., Seeing: Illusion, Brain and Mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), ,, Garey, L.J.; Jones, E.G. & Powell, T.P.S., Interrelationships of striate and extrastriate cortex with the primary relay sites of the visual pathway, J. Neurology & Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 31, 1968, 135-157,, Gerbrandt, L.K.; Spinelli, D.N. & Pribram, K.N., Interaction of visual attention and temporal cortex stimulation on electrical activity evoked in striate cortex, EEG & Clin. Neurol., 29 (1970): 146,, Gibson, Eleanor J. & Walk, Richard D., The visual cliff, Sci. Am., 202(4), Apr 1960,, Goodale, A.M. & Milner, A.D., Separate visual pathways for perception and action, Trends in Neurosci., 15, 1992, 20-25,, Goodale, M.A. & Milner, A.D., Separate visual pathways for perception and action, Trends in Neurosci., 15, 1992, 20-25,, Guitton, D.; Crommelink, M. & Roucoux, A., Stimulation of the superior colliculus in the alert cat: I. Eye movement and neck EMG activity evoked when the head is restrained, Exp. Brain Res., 39 (1980): 63-74,, Gulyas, B., Ottoson, D. & Roland, P.E., eds., Functional Organization of the Human Visual Cortex, (Oxford: Pergammon, 1993), ,, Gunkel, R.D. & Gouras, P., Changes in scotopic visual thresholds with age, Archives of Opthalmology, 69, 1963, 5,, Haber, Ralph, How we remember what we see, Sci. Am., 222(5), May 1970, 104-112,, Haxby, J.V., Grady, C.L., Horowitz, B., Ungerleider, L.G., Miskin, M, et al., Dissociation of object and spatial visual processing pathways in human extrastriate cortex, Proc. Nat. Acad. Scis. USA, 88, 1991, 1621-1625,, Heaton, J.M., The Eye: Phenomenology and Psychology of Function and Disorder, (London: Tavistock, 1968), ,, Hecaen, H & Ajuriaguerra, J., Balint's syndrome (psychic paralysis of visual fixation) and its minor forms, Brain, 77, 1954, 373-400,, Held, Richard, Two modes of processing spatially distributed visual stimulation, In Schmitt, F.O., ed., The Neurosciences: Second Study Program, (New York: Rockefeller Univ., 1971),, Held, Richard & Richards, W., Perception: Mechanisms and Models, (San Francisco: William H. Freeman, 1972), ,, Held, Richard & Richards, W., Recent Progress in Perception, (San Francisco: William H. Freeman, 1976), ,, Hickey, T.L., Postnatal development of the human lateral geniculate nucleus: Relationship to a critical period for the visual system, Sci., 198 (1977): 836-838,, Hines, D., Visual information processing in the left and right hemispheres, Neuropsychologia, 16, 1978, 593-599,, Holmes, G., Disturbances of visual orientation, Brit. J. Opthal., 2, 1918, 449-480,, Howard, Ian P., Human Visual Orientation, (Schenecktady, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1982), , Ch 6: Eye movements II: Behavioral studies, pp233-274 (includes pursuit & saccades); Ch 7: Visual direction with respect to head & body, pp275-340; Ch 8: The vestibular system, pp341-360; Ch 9: Visual-vestibular interactions, pp361-410; Ch 10: Visual orientation to gravity, pp412-442., Hubel, David H., Eye, Brain, and Vision, (New York: Sci. Am. Library, 1988), , 1: 10 to 12th brain cells; 10 to 14th - 15th interconnections; 2: 125M receptors in each eye; 4: the enormous complexity of the nervous system is almost always accompanied by a compelling degree of orderliness.; 7: cortex is 2mm thick and 1 sq ft or so; 8: occipital lobe contains a dozen or more visual areas the size of a postage stamp, and many more are housed in parietal and temporal lobes;, Hubel, David H., The visual cortex of the brain, Sci. Am., 209(5), Nov 1963, 54-62,, Humphrey, D.R., On the cortical control of visually directed reaching: Contributions by precentral motor areas, In Talbott, R.E. & Humphrey, D.R., eds., Posture and Movement, (New York: Raven Press, 1979),, Ingle, D. & Sprague, J.H., eds., Sensorimotor Function of Mid-Brain Tectum, (Neuroscience Res. Program Bull. Vol 13, 1975), , on superior colliculus, Ishigaki, H.; Edagawa, H. & Miyao, M., On the focal distance of the eye during sighting in pistol shooting, Perceptual & Motor Skills, 81(1), Aug 1995, 191-194, 11 marksmen sighting pistols at target 23 meters away; using focal distance and pupil diameter (4.5 mm), derived calculations of depth of field suggested shooters were focusing on foresight of pistol 80 cm in front of eye during shooting, Jeannrod, M. & Biguer, B., Visuomotor mechanisms in reaching within extrapersonal space, In Ingle, D., Goodale, M. & Mansfield, R., eds., Advances in the Analysis of Visual Behavior, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982), 387-409,, Jeannrod, M. & Prablanc, C., The visual control of reaching movements, In Desmedt, J., ed., Motor Control Mechanisms in Man, (New York: Raven Press, 1983), 13-29,, Jolicoeur, P.; Ullman, S. & MacKay, L., Curve tracing: A possible basic operation in the perception of spatial relations, Mem. & Cognit., 14, 1986, 129-140,, Jolicoeur, P.; Ullman, S. & MacKay, M., Visual curve tracing properties, J. Experimental Psych.: Hum. Perc. & Perf., 17, 1991, 997-1022,, Julesz, Bela, Binocular depth perception without familiarity cues, Sci., 145(3630), 24 Jul 1964, 356-362, 361: It was shown that depth can be perceived in the absence of monocular depth and familiarity cues and of all binocular depth cues except for disparity. [T]he correspondence of objects and patterns in the two retinal projections can be established without actual recognition of the objects and patterns. This pattern matching is based on some relatively simple processes of finding connected clusters formed by adjacent points of similar brightness, and the processes may seem to be amenable to rigorous analysis., Julesz, Bela, Dialogues on Perception, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995), ,, Julesz, Bela, Stereopsis and Binocular Rivalry of Contours, (Far Hills, NJ: Bell Tel. Sys. Tech. Pub. No. 4609, 1963), ,, Kahn, H.A. et al., The Framingham Eye Study, 1: Outline of major prevalence findings, Am. J. of Epidemiology, 106, 1977, 17-41,, Kaluzne, Steve & Piparo, Tony, Master the Art and Science of Putting: Training the Eyes, Mind and Body, (Winston-Salem, NC: Sports Performance centers of America, 1999), ,, Kaufman, L., Sight and Mind: An Introduction to Visual Perception, (1974), ,, Kimura, D., Dual functional asymmetry of the brain in visual perception, Neuropsychologia, 4, 1966, 275-285,, Kimura, D., Spatial localization in left and right visual fields, Canadian J. Psychology, 23, 1969, 445-458,, Kohler, Stefan & Moscovitch, Morris, Unconscious visual processing in neuropsychological syndromes: a survey of the literature and evaluation of models of consciousness, In Rugg, Michael, ed., Cognitive Neuroscience, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), 305-373,, Krauskopf, J. & Wooten, B.R., eds., Visual Psychophysics and Physiology: A Volume Dedicated to Lorrin Riggs, (NY: Academic Press, 1978), ,, Leigh, R. John, MD & Zee, David S., MD, The Neurology of Eye Movements, (Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co., 1983), ,, Lettvin, J., 'Filling out the forms': An appreciation of Hubel and Wiesel, Sci., 214 (1981): 518-520,, Levine, P., Parallel visual pathways: A review, Vision Res., 20 (1980): 561-594,, Livingstone, M.S. & Hubel, David H., Anatomy and physiology of a color system in the primate visual cortex, J. Neurosci., 4, 1984, 309-356,, Llinas, R.; Walton, K.; Hillman, D.E. & Sotelo, C., Inferior olive: Its role in motor learning, Sci., 190(4220), 19 Dec 1975, 1230-1231, damage to rat inferior olive impairs labyrinthine motor learning, showing that integrity of olivo-cerebellar system is necessary but that cerebellum is not seat of this learning, Logothetis, N.K. & Schall, J.D., Neuronal correlates of subjective visual perception, Sci., 245(4919), 18 Aug 1989, 761-763, superior temporal sulcus cortex of monkeys may mediate perceptual experience of a moving object; 761: Neurons in the visual cortex of higher mammals respond only to specific properties of visual stimuli. The middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal areas in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) contain neurons that analyze visual motion, but it is not known whether such activity can be related to the conscious perception of movement. Perceptual firing of isolated neurons may lead to a better understanding of the internal representation of the visual world., Lynch, J.C.; Mountcastle, V.B.; Talbott, W.H. & Yin, T.C.T., Parietal lobe mechanisms for directed visual attention, J. Neurophysiology, 40, 1977, 362-389,, Maffei, L. & Rizzolatti, G., Transfer properties of the lateral geniculate body, J. Neurophysiology, 30, 1967, 333-340,, Marr, Dave, Vision, (San Francisco: Freeman, 1982), ,, Martin, L., Visual localization and eye movements, In Wertheim, A.H.; Wagenaar, W.A. & Leibowitz, H.A., eds., Tutorials on Motion Perception (NY: Plenum, 1982), ,, Milner, A.D., Cerebral correlates of visual awareness, Neuropsychologia, 33, 1995, 1117-1130,, Milner, A.D. & Goodale, M.A., The Visual Brain in Action, (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995), ,, Mishkin, M.; Ungerleider, L.G. & Macko, K.A., Object vision and spatial vision: Two cortical pathways, Trends in Neurosciences, 6, 1983, 414-417,, Mohler, C.W. & Wurtz, R.H., Role of striate cortex and superior colliculus in visual guidance of saccadic eye movements in monkeys, J. Neurophysiology, 40, 1977, 74-94,, Moran, J. & Desimore, R., Selective attention gates visual processing in the extrastriate cortex, Sci., 229(4715), 23 Aug 1985, 782-784, when viewing two objects located in same visual field, with attention directed to only one, monkey striate cells are unaffected by the directed attention but inferior temporal cortex or prestriate area V4 cells show the non-attended object greatly reduced in response firings. 784: Our results indicate that attention gates visual processing by filtering out irrelevant information from within the receptive fields of single extrastriate neurons. This role of attention is different from that demonstrated previously in the posterior parietal cortex, to our knowledge the only other cortical area in which spatially directed attention has been found to influence neural responses. In the posterior parietal cortex, some neurons show enhanced responses when an animal attends to a stimulus inside the neuron's receptive field compared to when the animal attends to a stimulus outside the field. Since parietal neurons have large receptive fields with little or no selectivity for stimulus quality, these cells may play a role in directing attention to a spatial location, but by themselves do not provide information about the qualities of the attended stimuli. By contrast, in are V4 and the IT cortex selective attention may allow the animal to identify and remember the properties of a particular stimulus out of the many that may be acting on the retina at any given moment. If so, then the attenuation of response to irrelevant stimuli found in V4 and the IT cortex may underlie the attenuated processing of irrelevant stimuli shown psychophysically in humans., Morgan, M.J., Molyneux's Question, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1977), ,, Morgan, Meredith W., Changes in visual function in the aging eye, In Rosenbloom, Jr., Alfred A. & Morgan, Meredith W., eds., Vision and Aging: General and Clinical Perspectives, (New York: Fairchild Publications, 1986), ch 10, 121-134, ant. chamber depth decreases from avg. 3.6mm age 15-20 to 3.0mm age 70 bec. of lens growth, incr. myopia; as iris muscles don't work well and iris/pupil gets smaller -- senile meiosis (less light); lens grows and ages, it yellows from accumulation of flurogens, one activated by light at 345 nm and emitting at 420 nm (less light); high-mass protein molecules accumulate & act as scatter points (less light); amount of light reaching avg. 60 yr. old is 1/3rd that for 20 yr. old; slight increase in reaction time for positive accommodation but not for negative accommodation for 45 & over; apart from meiosis & lens change, little loss of static visual acuity; 126: Although individuals with excellent stereopsis do not necessarily have good ability to judge distance, they do have good binocular motor and sensory integration.; stereo visual acuity is suspected to decline after 50, but not known; harder to maintain monocular. pursuit / vergence, so more catch-up saccades required, but no big problem; 127: Tonic vergence appears to increase somewhat with increasing years, as evidenced by increasing esophoria for distance fixation. The increase is about 0.03 delta per year after age 30. Hirsch, Alpern and Schultz (1948) found the mean heterophoria to be just over a 0.5 delta exophoria at age 30 and nearly 0.04 delta esophoria by age 50. This variation has no clinical significance and is less than the error of the measurement used in clinical testing.; 131: more sensitive to glare; loss of spatial freq. contrast sensitivity in mid & high ranges mostly from decr. retinal illum.; decreased resistance to distraction and decreased ability to selectively attend to one source of info. in the presence of competing messages; decline in dynamic visual acuity (acuity for moving targets) perhaps from decrease in rate of smooth pursuit movements, but this can be improved with visual training., Mountcastle, V.B.; Motter, B.C.; Steinmetz, M.A. & Duffy, C.J., Looking and seeing: The visual functions of the parietal lobe, In Edelman, G.M.; Gall, W.E. & Cowan, W.M., eds., Dynamic Aspects of Neocortical Function, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984), 159-164,, Myers, R.E.; Sperry, R.W. & McCurdy, N.M., Neural mechanisms in visual guidance of limb movements, Arch. Neurology, 7, 1962, 195-202,, Nestle, Marion, Nutrition in aging: Dietary recommendations, In Rosenbloom, Jr., Alfred A. & Morgan, Meredith W., eds., Vision and Aging: General and Clinical Perspectives, (New York: Fairchild Publications, 1986), ch 7, 63-76,, Newcombe, F. & Ratcliff, G., Disorders of visuospatial analysis, In Boller, F. & Grafman, J., eds., Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol. 2, (New York: Elsevier, 1989), 333-356,, Newell, Frank W., Opthalmology: Principles and Concepts, (St. Louis: Mosby, 1986), , 402: Heterophoria is the condition in which the eyes are directed simultaneously to the same point of fixation at either near or far only when fusion is present. When fusion is interrupted, the eyes are not parallel. Exophoria refers to the tendency to medial deviation when fusion is suspended, exophoria to lateral deviation, and hyperphoria to upward deviation (the higher eye is customarily described). 401: when the brain sends a nerve signal for the eyes to move, an equal signal for movement to the same spatial location is sent to each eye's muscles; this is Hering's Law of equal innervation; Thus, in rotating the eyes to the right, the right lateral rectus muscle and the left medial rectus muscle each receive an equal innervational impulse to contract. Isolated impulses to the muscles of one eye only or to a single ocular muscle do not occur., O'Brien, D.F., Chemistry of vision, Sci., 218(4576), 3 Dec 1982, 961-966, a camera must adjust in-coming luminance for the film's sensitivity to light; the eye adjusts the retina's sensitivity to light level, with only some assistance from the pupil. 961: Illumination of the outer segment alters the plasma membrane conductance by hyperpolarization of the cell membrane and subsequent modulation of synaptic transmitter release. In the dark, the sodium ion permeability of outer-segment plasma membranes is high, 10 to 9th sodium ions per second. At low light, the sodium ion flux is reduced by about 10 to 7th Na+ per second per light-excited rhodopsin molecule. [vast multiplier effect of one rhodopsin] Light hits rod outer segment and rhodopsin causes cascading drop in Na+ flux (hyperpolarization)., Osherson, D.I.; Kosslyn, Steven M.; & Hollerbach, J.M., eds., An Invitation to Cognitive Science, Vol. 2: Visual Cognition and Action, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), ,, Paillard, J., Jordan, P. & Brouchon, M., Visual motion cues in prismatic adaptation: evidence of two separate and additive processes, Acta Psychologica, 48, 1981, 253-270,, Parson, L.M., Fox, P.T., Downs, J.H., Glass, T., Hirsch, T.B., Martin, C.C., Jerabek, P.A. & Lancaster, J.L., Use of implicit motor imagery for visual shape discrimination as revealed by PET, Nature, 375, 1995, 54-58,, Pelisson, D.; Prablanc, C.; Goodale, M.A. & Jeannrod, M., Visual control of reaching movements without vision of the limb, II: Evidence for fast nonconscious processes correcting the trajectory of the hand to the final position of a double-step stimulus, Exp. Brain Res., 62, 1986, 303-311,, Perenin, M.T. & Vighetto, A., Optic ataxia: A specific disorder in visuomotor coordination, In Hein, A. & Jeannrod, M., eds., Spatially Oriented Behavior, (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983), 305-326,, Perenin, M.T. & Vighetto, A., Optic ataxia: A specific disruption in visuomotor mechanisms, Brain, 111, 1988, 643-674,, Phelps, M.E., et al., Metabolic mapping of the brain's response to visual stimulation: Studies in humans, Sci., 211(4489), 27 Mar 1981, 1445-1448, glucose metabolic rate increases in primary and associative visual areas (PVC and AVC) with complexity of scene, and AVC does so more than PVC, indicating involvement of AVc in complex scene interpretation; overall increase in PVC was 45% above baseline; in AVC, 59%; but local met. rate was up by factor of 2 (as much as 100%) over people with eyes closed, indicating large metabolic reserve for visual interpretation., Pinker, Steven, ed., Visual Cognition, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984), ,, Pitman, J. Randall & Yolton, Robert L., Introduction to special tests for the assessment of vision in elderly patients, In Rosenbloom, Jr., Alfred A. & Morgan, Meredith W., eds., Vision and Aging: General and Clinical Perspectives, (New York: Fairchild Publications, 1986), ch 15, 211-230, 223-227: contrast sensitivity: as spatial frequency (fineness of grating pattern) increases, contrast sensitivity (ability to perceive difference in bright-dark in the pattern, or see the pattern at all other than as a uniform surface, decreases for all ages but age 45-66 is a step below 18039 in contrast sensitivity for all spatial frequency ranges ; 224: threshold for ability to see white and red wavelengths gets higher throughout life but not very; violet however gets pretty much higher, about 10 times harder to see by age 60 or so,, Polyak, S.L., The Retina, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1941), ,, Robinson, D.L.; Goldberg, M.E. & Stanton, G.B., Parietal association cortex in primate: Sensory mechanisms and behavioral modifications, J. Neurophysiology, 41, 1978, 910-932,, Rolls, E.T.; Perret, D.; Thorpe, S.J.; Puerto, A.; Roper-Hall, A. & Maddison, G., Responses of neurons in area 7 of the parietal cortex to objects of different significance, Brain Res., 169, 1979, 194-198,, Rosenbloom, Jr., Alfred A. & Morgan, Meredith W., eds., Vision and Aging: General and Clinical Perspectives, (New York: Fairchild Publications, 1986), ,, Rushton, W.A.H. & Campbell, F., Measurement of rhodopsin in the living human eye, Nature (London), 174, 1954, 1096,, Sagi, Dov & Julesz, Bela, Where and what in vision, Sci., 228(4704), 7 Jun 1985, 1217-1219, where is determined by parallel processing, but what requires time-consuming serial processing., Schiller, P.H. & Lee, K., The role of the primate extrastriate area V4 in vision, Sci., 251(4998), 8 Mar 1991, 1251-1253, V4 of rhesus monkey, between lunate sulcus and ST sulcus, partway off from midline, contains neurons sensitive to a variety of visual elements, including color, pattern and motion, and are sensitive to attention and stimulus relevance; basic tendency of these neurons is to react to the stimuli with the most of a characteristic or element, and to overlook those with the least. 1253: The tendency to react and orient toward the most intense and larger stimuli in the environment is a basic, reflex-like disposition of living systems. To be able to select and attend to stimuli that have lesser physical characteristics (less intense, smaller, and so forth), sophisticated neural circuitry is necessary that apparently involves the color-opponent system of the primate retina and the areas to which it projects: areas V1, V2, and V4 and the temporal lobe. In summary, our results suggest that area V4, rather than being devoted only to specific, basic attributes of vision such as color and pattern, is part of neural systems that play a role in the selection of stimuli whose physical attributes render them less compelling than other stimuli that appear in arrays. The area is involved in visual learning and the translation of learned pattern relationships across the visual field. The persistent latency increase on all tasks suggests that area V4 also augments the speed with which visual analysis is performed. [i.e., V4 for being extra careful], Schnapf, J.L. & Baylor, D.A., How photoreceptor cells respond to light, Sci. 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