Geoff Mangum's PuttingZone Research
Sample Section: 2.01.06.
2.01.06.,.-- ,-- BALL-GREEN -- INTERACTIONS,,,
2.01.06.01.,.-- ,-- -- GREEN CONDITIONS,,,
2.01.06.01.,Charles, Bob,All I know: One of the game's best putters reveals proven keys for holing out,Golf Mag.,31(8), Aug 1989, 68-73,71: grain: Check the grain around the hole. If the ball is rolling in over smooth grass, it's downgrain; over rough grass means into the grain.
2.01.06.01.,Lewis, Beverly,Perfecting Your Short Game,(New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1988),,24: pace depends on length of grass and moisture condition of green
2.01.06.01.,Nicklaus, Jack,Jack's lesson tee: No. 8: Putting: Mental approach and strategy,Golf Dig.,23(7), Jul 1972, 46-49,48: when walking onto green, consider grain, slope, grass length, and wind if it is more than a mild breeze: All these factors relate to a putt's starting direction and speed.
2.01.06.01.,Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter,Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting,(New York: Atheneum, 1986),,30: In putting, there are four main conditions that need to be observed and fed into your mental computer. They are slope, green texture, grain, and wind.
2.01.06.01.,Rosburg, Bob,Diners Club Matches,ABC,Dec 13, 1997,In winter Bermuda greens are frequently overseeded with rye or bent for color, and this changes the green speed. From off the edge of the green, a long putt's distance is harder to judge and the ball might get caught in the overseeded grrass. The best approach is to chip, say with a 7 iron, to get a good roll out of the ball.
2.01.06.01.,Stockton, Dave & Barkow, Al,Dave Stockton's Putt to Win: Secrets for Mastering the Other Game of Golf,(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996),,41: The firmness of a green is another way to read speed, but this is strictly a matter of feel. On some greens, you can feel the speed just by walking on them. Oakmont is like that -- you're kind of glad you're wearing spikes, so you don't slip and fall. In  fact, you can get the feel of a green's speed by how your spikes go into the ground. Is there a certain resistance? Does it feel brittle? Then the green likely will be fast. If you feel you're walking on a cushion, if the green is moist, the green likely will be relatively slow. 50: On hard, fast greens, speed is crucial to success. Putts are not going to break as much as it appears, no matter how softly you roll the ball, because the ball is going to have some pace on it. To counter this I apply some stroke technique. I try to keep the  putter very low to the ground during the stroke, even letting it ride on the grass a touch going back. I won't forward press quite as much as normal, if at all, because I don't want to take a chance on popping the ball, having it jump off the face. When a downhiller is really slick, I won't forward press at all, using the loft of my putter to produce a sofetr roll. I might even begin the stroke with my hands slightly back of center so that the loft of the putter kind of deadens the impact. 51: Wind doesn't affect the roll of a ball very much .... When a particularly strong wind is blowing with or into your line of putt, the ball will speed up or slow down a little. But mainly, the wind affects putting by moving your body during the stroke.
2.01.06.02.,.-- ,-- -- SPEED,,,
2.01.06.02.,Boomer, Percy,On Learning Golf,(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946),,26th printing, 1996; ch XXII, 220-232, Putting; 228: once ability for dead strength develops, a sense of direction begins to appear; 228: Dead strength must be the objective. Putt so that if the hole were not there your ball would stop dead on the spot it occupies.
2.01.06.02.,Dennis, Larry and Golf Digest Professional teaching Panel & Advisor Staff,Art of putting: part 1: judging direction,Golf Dig.,26(10), Oct 1975, 32-35,35: following Middlecoff, cheak area near hole for trampling from foot traffic, which causes ball to speed up from reduced friction.
2.01.06.02.,Drager, Dick & Yocom, Guy,Golf Digest school: Change pressure, nor putters,Golf Dig.,38(1), Jan 1987, 27-28,for putting lightening fast green. zzz
2.01.06.02.,Farnsworth, Craig L.,See It and Sink It: Mastering Putting through Peak Visual Performance,(New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1997),,106-109: three phases of a putt: acceleration, neutral, deceleration [not very good description]
2.01.06.02.,Foston, Paul, ed.,The Encyclopedia of Golf Techniques: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to Mastering the Game of Golf,(Philadelphia: Courage books, 1992),,146-147: Sloping putts; 147: Putting across a slope; 148-149: Putting on two tiers. Some sloping putts have a huge borrow. Both speed and line have to be spot on if you're to get the ball close. (147)
2.01.06.02.,Foston, Paul, ed.,The Encyclopedia of Golf Techniques: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to Mastering the Game of Golf,(Philadelphia: Courage books, 1992),,152-153: Judging the grain. The grain is the direction in which the grass grows. In mild climates, grass grows straight up, so the grain hardly affects your putt. However, the grass is mown up and down, pushing it in one direction and then the other. These stripes give the same effect as natural grain. (152) Across two mower stripes, the first grain away from the hole and the second towards the hole: As the putt meets the join it is almost like hitting a wall. The ball veers [more toward the hole, in the direction of the second stripe's grain] as a result. (152) When the grain looks either shiny or dull, depending on direction of look, the grain is strong. A green with a strong grain looks dull and dark when you stand on one side, and shiny and light from the other. (153) Warmer climates have more pronounced grain [stronger grasses, faster-growing grasses, with more grain changes during the day, too]. Grain may grow in direction of ocean or lake, or away from mountain, or in direction of prevailing wind. Uphill putt against the grain is especially slow; uphill with the grain may cancel the effect of the hill so that the speed needed is the same for a flat putt. If the grain runs sideways across the line of your putt, it has the same effect as a sideslope. When you have a left-to-right putt, and the grain runs in the same direction, the break becomes even more acute. When the line of your putt goes against the grain, its break is almost cancelled. (153)
2.01.06.02.,Jones, Grier,Putting reminder: Lag the tough ones,Golf Dig.,23(11), Nov 1972, 60,60: On long ones, or even 10-to-20 foooters on very slick or grainy greens - it's better to lay up to within a 2' to 3' radius circle on the best side for the next putt. zzz
2.01.06.02.,Lewis, Beverly,Perfecting Your Short Game,(New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1988),,24: pace depends on length of grass and moisture condition of green
2.01.06.02.,Lumpkin, Jack & Schiffman, Roger,How to read greens: Use your eyes, feet and head to get a better feel for the line,Golf Dig.,40(9), Sep 1989, 58-59,58: To read greens effectively, you need to use your senses: your eyes, your ears, your feel. I look at the color of the green, the height of the grass, anything unusual like grains of sand on the putting surface. Deep, bright color generally means slow greens. Slightly off-color or grayinsh or tannish hues usually mean fast greens.
2.01.06.02.,Lumpkin, Jack & Schiffman, Roger,How to read greens: Use your eyes, feet and head to get a better feel for the line,Golf Dig.,40(9), Sep 1989, 58-59,59: The easier you hit a putt, the more it will break. That's why fast greens break more than slow greens -- you have to stroke the ball easier to roll it the same distance. When I was a professional at Oak Hill years ago, I had the green superintendent not cut the 13th green one day. From behind the hole I tried a 15-foot putt. It broke about six inches, dying at the hole. The next day he cut the green. The exact same putt broke 10 inches. He double-cut the green the following day and the putt broke about 20 inches. So first decide how hard you want to stroke the ball, then figure how much break to play.
2.01.06.02.,Middlecoff, Cary,Read greens from the perspectives often overlooked,Golf Dig.,32(2), Feb 1981, 70-71,1. read green from 100-150 yards out for general lay; 2. test the fringe for grain; 3. check around hole; Also check around hole to see if the grass has been trampled down and worn thin by earlier play. Your approach putt might roll far past the hole, or slide well off line, if you fail to allow for the extra slickness created by trampling and wear. zzz
2.01.06.02.,Middlecoff, Cary & Michael, Tom,Master Guide to Golf,(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1960),,124: The length, thickness and texture of the grass, its wetness or dryness and level (uphill or downhill) determine the speed of the green. Another subtle factor is the grain, which like a piece of wood indicates the direction of growth.
2.01.06.02.,Nicklaus, Jack,Jack's lesson tee: No. 8: Putting: Mental approach and strategy,Golf Dig.,23(7), Jul 1972, 46-49,47: The commonest, cheapest commodity on the golf course is advice. It's usually offered in a friendly spirit, but one place to completely ignore it is on the greens. Always do your own thinking on putts. No one else knows how hard you are going to hit the ball, so there's no way they can determine your line. Anyway, a lot of discussion about break diverts attention from distance, which in my view is the critical factor. Shit out the world as you prepare to putt, then do your own thing.
2.01.06.02.,Nicklaus, Jack,Jack's lesson tee: No. 8: Putting: Mental approach and strategy,Golf Dig.,23(7), Jul 1972, 46-49,49: Have a good look around the area of the hole in sizing-up long putts, especially at times when grass growth is slow. Take into account a possible speed-up factor around the hole when greens are heavily worn. If foot traffic has been heavy, you could hit a 40-footer far past the hole if you base your stroke on the speed requirement of the first 20 feet.
2.01.06.02.,Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter,Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting,(New York: Atheneum, 1986),,28: The most important factor in putting has nothing to do with the stroke; bad strokes are responsible for only a small proportion of missed putts. The root cause of the problem is misreading of the green. It is self-evident that unless the player has crrectly assessed the line and speed for the putt, he will fail, no matter how smooth a stroke he makes. Similarly, indecision as to line and speed is often the main cause of infirm contact with the ball.
2.01.06.02.,Rodgers, Phil & Barkow, Al,Play Lower Handicap Golf,(South Norwalk, CT: Golf Digest, 1986),,91: The most important thing about putting is control of distance. ... Three-putting is almost always the result of poor distance, npt direction. ... There are putters who just recah the hole and die the ball in, and their are bolder putters who drill it in there. But the thing they both have in common is the ball always rolls at the same speed. Spee and distance are synonymous. A consistent speed makes reading the line of putts more reliable. ... To make a breaking putt you need speed as much as direction. The golfers who time after time hits his putts at the same rate of speed feeds that consistency into his judgment of the contour of the greens and makes a lot of putts. good putters have the ball going into the hole at the same rate of speed every time, and from any length. [make each putt from whatever distance pop down into center of cup and bounce back up above the rim]
2.01.06.02.,Shankland, Dale,Putting: Nightmare putts: Tips on tackling four of the toughest challenges a green can offer,Golf Mag.,26(4), Apr 1984, 94,fast; slow; L-R; R-L breaking putts. zzz
2.01.06.02.,Watson, Tom,Getting up and down with Tom Watson: How much break to play on faster greens,Golf Dig.,35(4), Apr 1984, 37,the faster the green, the more break you have to play; Because the speed will change from one green to the next, I want to hit the ball a given distance, not a given speed. I want to leave the ball, if I miss it, a foot or two below the hole. zzz
2.01.06.02.,Yocom, Guy,Betsy King: How to handle fast greens,Golf Dig.,41(7), Jul 1990, 134,
2.01.06.02.,Young, Stephen,The science of sport: Speedy greens,New Scientist,140(1894) supp, 9 Oct 1993, 16,
2.01.06.02.01.,.-- ,-- -- -- SPEED -- NEAR HOLE,,,
2.01.06.02.01.,Crenshaw, Ben,Putting errors you make: Read the distance,Golf Mag.,22(7), Jul 1980, 48,48: Most amateurs don't know how hard to hit a putt. They are too line-conscious and don't pay enough attention to the speed of a putt. And this carries over to a related fault, My pro-am partners are constantly asking how much their putts will break. They don't understand that the speed of the putt influences the line. By becoming more distance conscious, amateurs can improve their putting without tinkering with their strokes. Most three-putt greens are the result of hitting the first putt very long or very short, rather than far to the left or right of the hole. Developing a feel for rolling the ball up to the hole gives your first putt a better chance of dropping if the line is right. And if it doesn't drop, you'll have a shorter second putt. Of course the line is important. But you must have the speed as well. Someone having trouble reading distance should practice longer putts on the practice green, especially before a round. Stroke some 20 and 30 footers, making a special effort to note the force required to hit the ball the required distance. Also, develop the habit of looking around the hole when you read longer putts. [Locke] The grass around the cup is usually a little firmer than the rest of the green, because of players stepping to retrieve balls from the cup. This can make the area around the hole faster than the rest of the green. Take this into consideration when gauging the distance.
2.01.06.02.01.,Golf Magazine ,Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting,(New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975),,126: If the grass immediately surrounding the hole is thin or the last part of the putt downhill, you should be extremely cautious. But if the grass near the hole is comparatively heavy or if the putt must travel uphill the last few feet, go fairly strongly for the hole.
2.01.06.02.01.,Middlecoff, Cary & Michael, Tom,Master Guide to Golf,(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1960),,126: The first consideration in reading a green is to judge the speed with which the ball is likely to roll. Pay particular attention to the grass and the contour of the green within a three-foot radius of the hole. If the grass near the hole is comparatively heavy or if the putt must travel uphill the last few feet, go fairly strongly for the hole. You see, you won't need to worry as to what the ball will do if it gets past the hole. 126: On the other hand, if the grass immediately surrounding the hole is thin or the last part of the putt is downhill, you should be extremely cautious. You may have to hole the following putt. You can be bold when you putt against the grain; when you putt with it, take care.
2.01.06.02.01.,Stobbs, John,The Anatomy of Golf: Techniques and Tactics,(New York: Emerson, 1962),,75: near hole where green surface may be worn smooth from use, the green will be faster; this means you need to be sure th abll is rolling slow enough here to avoid rolling past the hole, and a slow ball breaks more; so on slick area near hole, the ball will break even more.
2.01.06.02.01.,Watson, Tom & Seitz, Nick,Make more putts by learning to read: Give yourself a break by sizing up the greens the way Watson does,Golf Dig.,34(7), Jul 1983, 60-65,read putts with feet feeling the slope; favor pro side of the hole; use caddie at flag for aim point [put caddie on high side]; watch ball whenever it goes past the hole for comeback line; always see some break even on a 3-footer, to increase your concentration and improve your margin of error by making target at hole more precise and smaller. You hear that you should play less break on Bermuda greens, but that isn't necessarily so. I've played on very fast Bermuda greens that break dramatically. Also, look for compacted areas around the hole. (Usually, you can see the sheen.) This part of the green will be faster, so beware. Putts on any type of green will break less late in the day after the grass has grown and become a slower surface. zzz
2.01.06.02.02.,.-- ,-- -- -- GRAIN & -- SPEED,,,
2.01.06.02.02.,Golf Magazine ,Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting,(New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975),,70: The speed at which the ball rolls has a lot to do with how much effect the grain will have. On longer putts, then, where you must hit the ball harder, the ball's course will not alter much because of grain until it begins to slow down. So it's a good idea on lengthier putts [and any putt] to examine the grain 2 or 3 feet from the cup, which is where you expect the ball to begin stopping. When you have the grain going with you, down your line of putt, the ball will roll more freely, and faster, so you must allow for this in the force with which you hit the ball. Conversely, if you're going against the grain, into the tips of the grass, the ball bumps into those tips and meets resistance, and you must give the ball a firmer rap.
2.01.06.02.02.,Middlecoff, Cary & Michael, Tom,Master Guide to Golf,(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1960),,125: The best way to determine grain on a green is to look for shine. When you're studying the hole and the green presents a sort of glazed or shiny surface, you know your putt is going with the grain and the ball will roll a lot more freely and much farther than you might suppose upon a more cursory investigation. Conversely, if the surface of the green presents a dull appearance, then you're looking against the grain, and you must hit the ball much harder than you'd think at first glance. 125-126: cross grain opposing break can make a putt straight. 127: You can be bold when you putt against the grain; when you putt with it, take care.
2.01.06.02.02.,Smith, Horton & Taylor, Dawson,The Secret of Holing Putts,(New York: Barnes; London: Yoseloff, 1961),,101: Always remember that putting with the grain speeds the ball, and putting against the grain slows it up. 102: I'll never know why it is so difficult for me (and, I'm certain, for many other golfers as well), when I know that the grain is directly against me and that it will slow up the putt, to hit the putt hard enough against the grain to be up to the cup. One trick I have used, and you may try it too, is to imagine a tee about 6 inches beyond the cup and to putt for the imaginary tee. Sometimes it works. I have left many a putt hanging [1-3] on the front lip of the cup as a result of my failure to recognize the strength of the grain in a green. 103: The reverse situation, putting with the grain, is not as hard for the ordinary golfer to adapt to. The ball will travel faster and farther than you expect, so grip your putter a little more lightly than usual and pretend you are putting downhill. You might try the reverse psychology of imagining a tee or the cup several inches closer than it actually is.
2.01.06.02.02.,Stockton, Dave & Barkow, Al,Dave Stockton's Putt to Win: Secrets for Mastering the Other Game of Golf,(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996),,40: When reading grain, consider also the speed at which the ball will roll. You can putt through the grain, just as you can putt through the break, and if you don't hit your putt firmly enough, the grain can throw it off line.
2.01.06.02.03.,.-- ,-- -- -- SURFACE -- IRREGULARITIES / -- SPEED,,,
2.01.06.02.03.,Pelz, Dave & Mastroni, Nick,Putt Like the Pros: Dave Pelz's Scientific Way to Improve Your Stroke, Reading Greens, and Lowering Your Score,(New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1989),,
2.01.06.02.04.,.-- ,-- -- -- SURFACE -- HARDNESS / -- TEXTURE / -- SPEED,,,
2.01.06.02.04.,Alliss, Peter & Trevillion, Paul,Easier Golf,(London: Stanley Paul, 1969),,
2.01.06.02.04.,Golf Magazine ,Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting,(New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975),,129: When putting on a rough, thick, or hairy green, your major problem is to get the ball up and rolling. use more loft for chronic hairy greens. But for rare hairy greens, when the ball settles down in the grass morwe than normal, play the ball up more -- as much as an inch farther -- so you don;t hit down on it and make the ball squirt off line; catch ball on upswing to bring it up out of the grass. Hit a little harder and follow-through. Don't play as much break because taller grass will resist break forces.
2.01.06.02.04.,Lumpkin, Jack & Schiffman, Roger,How to read greens: Use your eyes, feet and head to get a better feel for the line,Golf Dig.,40(9), Sep 1989, 58-59,58: When I walk on a green, I listen to my steps and try to feel with my feet whether the surface is firm or soft. ... On the green, I listent to my spikes. If they crunch, the surface is hard and probably very fast. I can also feel if I am walking uphill, downhill or sidehill.
2.01.06.02.04.,Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter,Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting,(New York: Atheneum, 1986),,36: learn almost all you need about texture from the practice green.
2.01.06.02.04.,Soley, Clyne,Putting: How well should you putt? It depends on your handicap, as shown by the results of over 3,500 rounds of golf,Golf Mag.,30(2), Feb 1978, 104-105,105: variables that increase the number of putts per round: 1. Larger than normal greens: These increase the length of first putts, thereby increasing the possibility of three putting and reducing the chance of one putting. 2. Greens with excessive slope and contour: These increase the number of putts because one is more likely to wind up far from the hole after the first putt than on a normal green. As we are all painfully aware, downhill putts are extremely testing on these greens. For the same reason, especially fast greens also add to the putting total. 3. Greens that cause false illusions: These are encountered on courses that present a false impression of degree of slope. What looks to be level is not, and vice versa. 4. Especially hard surfaced greens: These make it extremely difficult to control shots to the green, even chip shots. [sounds like Oakmont] As complaining pros often emphasize, all of the above factors are frequently in evidence at major championships. Among the factors that tend to decrease the number of putts are the following: 1. Small, flat, level and slow greens: These normally make it easier for you to control all types of approach shots, so that first putts are shorter. 2. Obviously, effective pitch and chip shots make for fewer putts. To take this one step further, poor iron players miss many greens and can average about 30 putts per round if their chips and pitches are consistently accurate.
2.01.06.02.05.,.-- ,-- -- -- DAILY CHANGES OF -- SPEED & -- GRAIN,,,
2.01.06.02.05.,Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter,Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting,(New York: Atheneum, 1986),,36: That change in pace will be tempered in some degree because the grass also grows during the day, so in practical terms the golfer has all the time he needs to adjust his weight of stroke as the round progresses without thinking about it. But there is one condition that can change appreciably during the course of a hot day, and that is grain, or nap.
2.01.06.02.06.,.-- ,-- -- -- MOSITURE & -- SPEED,,,
2.01.06.02.06.,Alliss, Peter & Trevillion, Paul,Easier Golf,(London: Stanley Paul, 1969),,
2.01.06.02.06.,Golf Magazine ,Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting,(New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975),,127: on a wet green, the ball will slide more [because there is less linear friction converting linear motion to angular motion making the ball roll; so, to the extent the ball is not engaging the friction of the grass tips the putt is less affected by grain, and to the extent the putt has less friction and so rolls faster it will be less affected by the break or slope over the segment of the putt where the speed is higher, although as ball slows down near hole the reggular slpe effect will take over, but still then the slope effect will be resisted a bit by water pressure keeping ball uphill a bit -- not likely too much of an effect. Also note that wetness might generally slow the putt overall, especially as it nears hole -- blasted along at first then dramatically dying out -- and in the dying phase there is more opportunity for gravity to work; altogether, a somehwat confused and complicated set of effects] A hairy green (one that hasn't been cut recently) will have the same effect as a wet one. 128: Play the ball with a firm left wrist and play the ball up a bit for upswing overspin -- both for a firmer, truer roll that holds the line well. Also, Bermuda holds the moisture longer than bent grass.
2.01.06.03.,.-- ,-- -- MAXIMUM / -- OPTIMUM -- SPEED,,,
2.01.06.03.,Cochran, Alastair & Stobbs, John,Search for the Perfect Swing: The Proven Scientific Aproach to Fundamentally Improving Your Game,(Chicago, IL: Triumph Books, 1968),,141: For a normal hole the just-fall-back-in speed corresponds to an overshoot distance of only five or six feet. For a double-size hole, the width is doubled but also the depth from front to back si doubled, and this results in a just-fall-back-in speed that corresponds to an overshoot distance of twenty to twenty-five feet on an average green. This is a maximum speed four or five times higher than the standard hole.
2.01.06.03.,Cohn, Patrick J. & Winters, Robert K.,The Mental Art of Putting: Using Your Mind to Putt Your Best--The Psychology of Great Putting,(South Bend, IN: Diamond Communications, Inc., 1995),,4: Pelz's 17-inch rule holds up well under average green speeds, but it changes drastically if you are putting on very fast, smooth greens or very slow, bumpy greens or on greens with severe slopes. On very smooth bent grass greens, the distance shortens to 10 to 12 inches past the hole.
2.01.06.03.,Crafter, Jane,How to find your holing speed,Golf Dig.,44(11), Nov 1994, 54-59,54: holing speed or optimum speed is one that carries the ball 9 inches past the cup; practice swinging the putterhead as the first step to achieving holing speed; 55: Drill: fishing sinker pendulum; tie a weight on a strig and wrap the end of the stirng around your index finger so the weight hangs behind the shaft of the putter; swing the putter back and forth with a smooth and even stroke that synchronizes with the swinging weight; if you get jerky or lose rhythm, the stroke will fall out of synchronization with the pendulum weight; 56: to keep left wrist firm, keep right wrist firm: maintain right wrist cock throughout stroke; Drill: place a ball between inside of right wrist and shaft and putt while keeping ball in place; Impact: This sounds obvious, but the most solid putts occur when the middle of the putterface contacts the middle of the ball. In other words, a level hit -- one that produces the minimum of backspin or overspin -- is best. I've never been a believer in trying to hit down or up on putts. That's way too difficult to reproduce on a consistent basis. Drill; stack 2 quarters behind the ball and place the putterhead on the quarters; make the stroke by missing the quarters. Consistent strikes lead to consistent distance. 57: Path: straight back & through; Drill: board outside ball to practice not taking putter outside back; board inside ball to practice not taking putter inside back; two boards 1 putter width to practice straight strokes. 58: [Y]ou want the ball to be running at the hole as if it will finish about nine inches past. That gives it the best chance of going in. Any slower and it may veer off; any faster and you have to hit the middle of the cup for the ball to go in. If it doesn't, you'll lip out. Drill: place tee 9 behind hole; place 4 balls in line 4', 5', 6' and 7' away and putt in order, trying to stop them at tee; forget hole, let hole get in the way.
2.01.06.03.,Dennis, Larry,Die putts at the hole -- and you're dead: New tests prove you'll make more putts hitting them harder,Golf Dig.,28(7), Jul 1977, 52-55,Pelz, Pres. of Preceptor Golf Ltd.; 53: A green is not a billiard table. Pelz's true-roller putting data for 17-inch rule from eastern seaboard courses at various latitudes w/ bent & bermuda and all putts were 12-foot putts: COURSE [grass, condition], Best Speed Dist. Past Hole--Best % [Dying Speed %]: WESTCHESTER CC, RYE, NY [bent, freshly mowed, early am]: 5-20--95% [40%] [bec. of footprints, ie, late afternoon: 15-20--60%]; SEDGEFIELD CC, GREENSBORO, NC [bent, early am]: 10-15--75% [20%] [bec. of footprints, ie, late afternoon, 40--50%]; PINEHURST, NC [bent mixed w/ poa ann., freshly mowed]: 24--70% [10%]; CONGRESSIONAL CC, WASHINGTON, DC [bent, immed. after 1976 PGA Championship]: 12-15--95% [50%]; COLUMBIA CC, CHEVY CHASE [bent]: 15--90% [30%]; BELLE HAVEN CC, ALEXANDRIA, VA [poa ann., spring]: 40--30%; SAME [bent, Fall, September]: 20--65% [--]; INVERRARY CC, LAUDERHILL, FL [bermuda]: 20-30--70% [0%]; LONG BOAT KEY, SARASOTA, FL [bermuda]: 30--75% [10%]; 54: going faster, putts begin to lip out, but The dropoff is not as great on the bent greens, however, because more of those putts have a tendency to hit dead center in the back of the cup and stay in. Pelz: Florida golfers should be better than Northern golfers because they hit the ball harder; Nicklaus did not win a Florida tournament until 9th yr on tour; Julius Boros, who grew up on the bent grass greens of Connecticut, was on the tour for 17 years before he won in Florida. [See also George Archer's comments in his Stroke that Won the Masters article and Ray Floyd, From 60 Yards In, for similiar although varying comments.] zzz
2.01.06.03.,Farley, Dick,Putting drills: Specialize your practice for better results,Golf Mag.,34(6), Jun 1992, 102-103,1. horseshoe around the world; 2. divide cup to high and amateur sides, place a tee to block access to the amateur side; 3. putt with eyes closed and call where it goes (short, long, left, right) to learn clubface position at impact; 4. look past hole 17 inches and roll balls 17 inches past the hole; 5. tempo / metronome: Genuine short-game wizards stroke the ball with the same tempo on every putt, long or short, and vary the length of their strokes. zzz
2.01.06.03.,Farnsworth, Craig L.,See It and Sink It: Mastering Putting through Peak Visual Performance,(New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1997),,104-109: speed of ball rolling on greens for various distances and conditions; needed for accuracy of in-vision-ing.
2.01.06.03.,GCM,Note,,zznote,There is always one minimum speed for every putt and there is only a small range of speeds between this minimum and the maximum speed -- perhaps never more than a 10 to 20 percent increase in speed is available to fine-tune the putt's speed before the maximum speed is exceeded. There is always only one maximum speed. There is usually only one optimum speed. The minimum speed is never the best speed. The maximum speed is never the best speed. The faster the green, the narrower the range of possible speeds. The slower the putt, the narrower the range of possibe speeds. the optimum speed is most often closer to the maximum speed than it is to the minimum speed. Staying below the maximum speed is more important than staying above the minimum speed because a putt that goes well past with no chance of dropping will go more than three feet past whereas a short putt may be just a couple of inches short and trying to hit the minimum speed doesn't promote leaving putts way short.
2.01.06.03.,Golf Magazine,Low handicapper: Sink short birdie putts: A bolder approach will pay dividends,Golf Mag.,28(8), Aug 1986, 50,17 inches past hole will make for straighter putts that hole line. zzz
2.01.06.03.,Golf Magazine ,Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting,(New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975),,101: there are 2 schools of thought on long putts: the lag-putt school and the never-up, never-in school; Jones for lags; Middlecoff, Palmer and Nicklaus for aggressive. 102: If your putts are short and you follow never up, never in school, use formula one foot for every ten feet: try to roll ball one foot past hole for every ten feet of the putt; 1 past on 10-foot putt; 1.5' past on 15-foot putt; 2' past on 20-footer. If the putt is over 40 feet, try to envision a washtub-size ring around the hole, and merely concentrate on getting the ball inside the imaginary circle.
2.01.06.03.,Hutton, Stephen,Instant lesson: Improve your feel for distance by practice putting to an imaginary hole,Golf Dig.,40(1), Jan 1989, 135,to avoid being short, aim 1-2' past the cup. zzz
2.01.06.03.,Kostis, Peter,Control your speed to improve your putting,Golf Dig.,44(3), Mar 1993, 90-96,92: This is a fact: To give your ball the best chance of going into the hole, it has to be rtaveling at a speed that will carry it 18 to 24 inches past the cup. 94: [T]hat's true for every putt, whatever its length. A 45-foot putt that goes 2 feet past and a 3-foot putt that goes 2 feet past are equal in terms of aggressiveness. Both were traveling at the same speed when they reached the hole, so both were the same in terms of aggressiveness. [very good point about ball speed at hole]
2.01.06.03.,Leadbetter, David & Huggan, John,David leadbetter's Fault's and Fixes,(New York: Harper Collins, 1993),,109: Always try to hit a putt firmly enough that, should it miss, the ball will finish about 18 inches past the hole. That's the optimum speed for the ball to hold its line, yet still fall in if it catches any part of the cup.
2.01.06.03.,Low, George & Barkow, Al,The Master of Putting: Classic Secrets of a Putting Legend,(New York: Lyons & Burford, 1983),,
2.01.06.03.,O'Brien, G.,Putting ills cured,Golf World,7(31), Jan 8, 1954, 10,10: Stroke the ball with enough impact to roll it some ten inches beyond the cup.
2.01.06.03.,Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter,Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting,(New York: Atheneum, 1986),,82: As for speed, I have always believed that getting the ball up to the hole with enough momentum to carry it two or three feet past was absolutely central to the whole game. I had become thoroughly convinced b then of the advantage of having a firmly struck putt hold its line as it neared the hole.
2.01.06.03.,Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter,Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting,(New York: Atheneum, 1986),,84: The outer speed limit of playability comes when the player cannot influence the putt beyond setting it in motion. A flat green can be extremely fast but entirely fair to the player, and Oakmont comes to the mind as an example. But when the greens have severe slopes, such as those of the Augusta National, that same speed would be silly. The upper limit should be just before the skilled player loses the ability to influence the progress of the putt both for direction and distance. Unless those who prepare championship courses adhere to that unwritten rule, the game becomes ridiculous.
2.01.06.03.,Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter,Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting,(New York: Atheneum, 1986),,58: Toward the end of a busy day when there has been heavy traffic on the course,  it is common to see a putt heading on perfect line for the target lurch sideways like a drunken sailor in the last foot or so of it travel and miss the hole comfortably. The rapr putters score because the putt is traveling at a fair lick as it reaches the hole and is therefore much less likely to fall away from its target line. That line has to be true, of course, because the target is effectively only two balls wide. The margin for error is considerably reduced because, whereas the stroked putt will topple into the side of the hole, the rapped putt on that line will invariably jump over the edge of the hole. Most rap putters aim to putt the ball to a precise spot about eighteen inches behind and dead on line with the center of the hole.
2.01.06.03.,Pelz, Dave & Mastroni, Nick,Putt Like the Pros: Dave Pelz's Scientific Way to Improve Your Stroke, Reading Greens, and Lowering Your Score,(New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1989),,ch 13, 125-135
2.01.06.03.,Rodgers, Phil & Barkow, Al,Play Lower Handicap Golf,(South Norwalk, CT: Golf Digest, 1986),,91: The most important thing about putting is control of distance. ... Three-putting is almost always the result of poor distance, npt direction. ... There are putters who just recah the hole and die the ball in, and their are bolder putters who drill it in there. But the thing they both have in common is the ball always rolls at the same speed. Spee and distance are synonymous. A consistent speed makes reading the line of putts more reliable. ... To make a breaking putt you need speed as much as direction. The golfers who time after time hits his putts at the same rate of speed feeds that consistency into his judgment of the contour of the greens and makes a lot of putts. good putters have the ball going into the hole at the same rate of speed every time, and from any length. [make each putt from whatever distance pop down into center of cup and bounce back up above the rim]
2.01.06.03.,Soley, Clyne,Putting: How well should you putt? It depends on your handicap, as shown by the results of over 3,500 rounds of golf,Golf Mag.,30(2), Feb 1978, 104-105,105: It has been documented mathematically by Dr. Alastair Cochran in The Search for the Perfect Swing that a putt destined to travel four feet or more beyond the cup will not drop, even if it is dead center. This principle was confirmed in my study employing a putting machine. On a green slightly faster than normal the critical distance beyond the hole was 4 1/2 feet. At that speed the ball hit the back of the hole, hopped up and remained on the edge. So the never up, never in axiom becomes meaningless unless the putt is struck softly enough to travel no more than about four feet beyond the hole. [Note: distance ball rolls past the hole depends on speed at hole and on speed of green, so one cannot say that the maximum speed at the hole is one that rolls the ball X feet past the hole; instead, the ball at max speed V will roll X+ on fast greens, X on medium greens, and X- on slow greens. On a slow green, the max speed will not roll the ball too far past the hole, say 2.5 feet, whereas on a fast green, the same speed at the hole will roll the ball 4.5 feet past the hole. Therefore, in finding the max speed for green conditions before a round, assess green speed and smack a few ball near the hole dead center to get the ball to skip the hole, and see how far past it goes.]
2.01.06.03.,Stockton, Dave & Barkow, Al,Dave Stockton's Putt to Win: Secrets for Mastering the Other Game of Golf,(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996),,86: On all putts longer than three feet, you want to see the ball dying into the front of the hole on the intended line. On longer putts, stroke so that putts  that miss never go more than 16 inches past the hole. With those two ideas in mind, you will stroke the ball with an even pace all the way. 137: One of the first drills I learned from my father was to put a tee in the ground 16 inches behind the hole and make a point of never hitting the ball past it. ...  This drill should be used for all types of putts -- downhillers, uphillers, sidehillers, and flat ones.