Geoff Mangum's PuttingZone Research

Sample Section: 5.01.09.05.

5.01.09.05., .-- , -- -- IMPACT / -- SWEETSPOT IMPACT / -- SOLID IMPACT, , ,

5.01.09.05., Alliss, Peter & Trevillion, Paul, Easier Golf, (London: Stanley Paul, 1969), , 67: once you learn how to strike the ball solidly, speed and everything else falls into place. Learning on the difficult greens of South Africa and Florida trains good striking, but learning on the fast greens of Britain makes it too easy to roll the ball and thus difficult to learn proper striking skills well, in particular, reduces focus on proper acceleration into impact. 67: Remember all shots in golf have to be struck with authority and the putt even more so. Because this is such a gentle shot, the timing has to be absolutely correct, so see to it that the clubhead is travelling quicker at impact than at any other time in the swing. [Note: tempo is only one aspect of the broader aspect timing; the pattern of acceleration is another aspect of timing]

5.01.09.05., Andrisani, John, Putting: Superstroke: Jay Sigel's keys to his putting success, Golf Mag., 26(9), Sep 1984, 38, hits down slightly and contacts ball above the equator.

5.01.09.05., Appleby, Stuart, Tip from the Tour: Stripe your putts for a purer roll, Golf Dig., 49(4), Apr 1998, 54, putt a striped ball on a chalk line with stripe vertical in plane of roll to check impact for solid contact and true roll with putterhead moving straight down the line at impact.

5.01.09.05., Charles, Bob, The soundest way to putt, Golf Dig., 26(8), Aug 1975, 78-79, 79: [T]o ensure a solid hit, I try to swing the putter into the ball with just a little bit more momentum than I give it going back.

5.01.09.05., Cohn, Patrick J. & Winters, Robert K., The Mental Art of Putting: Using Your Mind to Putt Your Best--The Psychology of Great Putting, (South Bend, IN: Diamond Communications, Inc., 1995), , 92: Start the putter head back immediately after you refocus on the ball. This acts as a form of visual trigger or visual forward press. You also can use a forward press to initiate the stroke. After refocusing on the ball, push your hands slightly forward to the target and then start the putter head back. This prevents you from focusing on the putter head during the backswing and becoming ball-bound. 92: Players who hit putts squarely, and focus on a specific part of the ball, roll the ball better. If you are nervous about making a putt, try using this technique. You have to hit the ball squarely to insure the ball rolls the proper distance. The ball tends to hold its line better also. You can focus on the back half of the ball, a number or letter, or on a dimple on the ball. use a visual anchor and hot the ball solidly.

5.01.09.05., Cook, Chuch & Schiffman, Roger, How to become a complete putter: How to perfect the five impact factors for a consistently sound stroke, Golf Dig., 40(9), Sep 1989, 52-55, 52: 5 impact factors for hitting putts where you intend: putter path at impact; face angle at impact; angle of attack -- vertical face angle up, down or level; impact point on face; clubhead speed at impact.

5.01.09.05., Cracraft, Sean, Pro pointer: Putting: Tennis putts, Golf Mag., 32(2), Feb 1990, 39, 5-foot putt with tennis ball for short putt practice; hit equator; softer shell requires more concentration to make solid stroke.

09.05., Crenshaw, Ben, Crenshaw explains his putting stroke -- the best on tour, Golf Dig., 28(1), Jan 1977, 40-41, I have a feeling I'm just rolling the ball up to thee hole with my right hand. I do try to keep my left hand firm. 40); slightly open stance; eyes inside 4-5 inches; It gives me a better feel for the hole and I can more easily set [see?] the line of the putt. (41); What I'm thinking of is trying to make a smooth stroke and get a good, solid hit. (41)

 

5.01.09.05., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 73: unless the linear motion matches the rotational motion of a ball, the ball will skid. The friction on the bottom of the ball will slow the ball's linear motion and impart rotational motion. At some point, the two motions will match and the ball will roll without any skid [and without anymore sliding friction retarding linear motion]. 74: This point is always whenever the ball's linear motion slows to 5/7ths of its starting speed, regardless of the roughness of the surface or the ball. Still, on a rough surface with more friction slowing the ball and speeding up the spin, the true skidless roll begins sooner than otherwise. In the case of a long putt across a fairly fast green, it is likely to be over before the ball has traveled 1.5 to 2 meters. The sliding or skidding which may form the first part of the motion of a ball over a level surface can be avoided in some cases if one wishes to produce a smooth rolling motion right from the start. To accomplish this it is necessary to impart rotation to the ball in the form of top spin at just the right rate to match the initial velocity. 75: With a billiard ball, such topspin is imparted by striking the ball with the cue at a point 7/10th of the diameter of the ball above the surface, with a horizontal blow parallel to the plane of the ball's horizontal equator. For a standard billiard ball, this is 3.5 cm above the surface. Billiard table cushions are shaped so the rail is also at this height, to provide true-rolling rebounds of balls off the rails. 148: the time when true rolling starts, t= 2/7 x V/mu.g, where V=initial velocity off putter and mu= coefficient of friction; the velocity of the ball when true rolling begins, v= 5/7 x V; 149: the spin rate of the ball when true rolling begins, omega= 5/7 x V/a, where a= radius of the ball; distance ball has traveled when true rolling begins, s= 12/49 x V(sq)/mu.g. 150: Since the skid distance s is proportional to square of the initial velocity V, the skid is relatively much shorter at small initial velocities.

5.01.09.05., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 150: In the case of a golf ball putted across a fairly large green in a 10-metre putt, an initial velocity of about 4 m/s is necessary. The coefficient of sliding friction in this case is probably about 0.4. Applying the equations shows that sliding occurs over the first third of a second while the ball travels a distance of rather less than 2 m.

5.01.09.05., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 11: after impact, it takes about 0.6 milliseconds (6/10th of a thousandth of a second) for vibrations to travel up shaft to hands on grip. [thereafter, takes some time for feeling in hands to register in CNS]. So impact feel only comes after ball well away from club. Same with sound of impact. 16: bounce depends on square of coefficient of restitution, so that coeffic equals the square root of the ration of the bounce to the drop height. A coeffic. of 1/2 means a bounce of 1/4 the drop height. A ball dropped from a height is compressed by the blow it receives at impact ... until it is brought momentarily to rest. The elasticity of the ball then reasserts the original spherical shape and the ball rebounds. However, not all the energy used in compressing the ball is recovered as the original shape is regained, and the rebound is therefore not so high. The energy lost is absorbed by the ball and converted into heat, so that a ball is hotter after the impact than it was before. The small change in temperature is not noticeable in the case of a single impact (in the case of a golf ball driven off the tee, the temperature rise is about 0.5 degrees C) .... 17: The clubhead also deforms but not appreciably. The coefficient. changes with temperature, and reduces as the ball gets colder. Over a range of 0 to 25 deg. C, a drive coefficient. ranges from 0.64 to 0.75. Thus, on a cold day, the ball has less internal springiness and is less lively and does not go as far; this is counterintuitive to the notion that a cold ball is harder and therefore goes farther -- it doesn't. 21: golf rubber has low thermal conductivity and takes about 1 hour to warm up to ambient temperature or cool down, and the process goes from outside to inside. So carrying a ball in the pocket from green to tee on a cold day might make the outside feel warmer but the inside of the ball is still cold and the coeffic. of restitution still reduced by temp. 154: the coeffic of rest. for two billiard balls in impact is about 0.9. [not likely putt ball is higher]

09.05., Golf Digest, All About Putting, (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan; London: Kaye & Wind, 1973), , 96: three main points for stroke: First, the overall stroke should be smooth, rhythmic, fluid. It should be in no way hurried, jerky, frantic. It should have tempo. Second, the face of the putter should be square (at right angles) to the intended line of roll when it comes in contact with the ball. Third, the ball should be struck solidly; contact should be made between the center of gravity of the clubface and the back of the ball. 104: 3 main points for solid impact; keep eyes on back of the ball; no body movement during stroke; and [105] position the ball in stance consistently, and in particular, in line with the left instep. Also, keep putterhead moving level to the ground, not hitting up or down on ball. 5.01.09.05., Golf Digest, The basics of good putting, Golf Dig., 40(3), Mar 1989, 82-85, 82: As with most other skills ..., it's easier to start out slowly and graduate from small successes to larger ones. That's why I recommend you start learning your golf skills near the hole and work backward. ... The purpose of your putting stroke is to contact the ball solidly so it will roll end over end into or near the hole. Common traits of good strokes: hands work together; body position complements putterface; ball position in stance for contact at bottom of arc. Putter characteristics to promote good strokes: when centered under eyes in your setup position, sole should be flat; flat top on grip; head heavy enough you can feel it at end of shaft. Hand/putterface relation: Position the shaft so that if it were extended upward it would run in line with your forearms. This will help eliminate any tendency to hinge the wrists during the stroke. [vague: probably because this forces a little arching down of wrists, which does inhibit hinging to a degree, but even this is no guarantee] Hold the club with the hands facing each other or turned an equal amount under the shaft with the thumbs resting on top of the handle.

5.01.09.05., Golf Digest, The basics of good putting, Golf Dig., 40(3), Mar 1989, 82-85, 84: learn sound of a solid putt; practice 2- to 6-footers for distance and line control. Build a rhythm in your stroke by being aware of the distance the putt travels. Drill: putt several balls the same distance; putt balls progressively greater distances; putt to a fringe. [A]ll will help develop your sense of feel and awareness of the rhythm required to make the ball travel certain distances. Drill: putt a striped range ball for no wobble, square and solid contact. Putter characteristics: Choose a putter that aids alignment. A line or lines on the putterhead will aid you in aiming the putter down your target line. This will be directly at the hole for a level or straight putt, but will be right or left of the hole for a putt on a green that slopes left or right.

5.01.09.05., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 145: Line up a striped range ball with the stripe perpendicular to the line of a 20-foot putt. Putt the ball and videotape the putt. When you view the tape in slow motion, you'll be able to see how quickly the ball starts rolling. Generally, it should skid for a short distance, a foot or less depending on the velocity of the putt [wrong: depends on speed of green], and then the stripe will start turning over. The quicker you can get the ball rolling and that stripe turning over, the better off you are. [146] The one thing you don't want to see is that stripe backing up before the ball starts rolling. That means you've hit it with too much loft on your putter, creating backspin and making the ball bounce. This will affect both accuracy and distance. The ball won't go as far when hit with the same force. You have to hit the ball with a flat clubface. Negative loft can drive the ball into the ground, and that will make it bounce. If you're on a firm, fast green, you may be able to hit the putt with a slight negative loft and actually get the ball rolling well. (You don't want to hit down on it, a point I'll discuss further when we get into the stroke itself.) But if you're on a thatchy green, like thick Bermuda, and you drive the ball the slightest bit into the ground, it will bounce, so you don't want negative loft there. In this case you actually need a slight bit of loft to help get the ball up on top of the thick grass so it can roll.

5.01.09.05., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 146: To get a true roll it's also important to hit the ball solidly. I'm convinced that more putts are missed because they are miss-hit than for any other reason. ... I have never seen a person, if he has played a little bit of golf and has a little bit of ability, leave a long putt 10 or 12 feet short if he hits it solidly. I've never seen anybody who doesn't hit a makeable 15-foot putt about the proper distance if he hits it solidly. To make solid contact, you want to hit the center of the ball with the center of the club, measuring from top to bottom. And you want to make contact consistently at the same spot on the clubface, measuring from toe to heel.

5.01.09.05., Kite, Tom & Wade, Don, Five secrets for super putting: The Tour's most consistent player analyzes the game's greatest putters: What they have in common could help save you strokes, Golf Dig., 36(9), Sep 1985, 20-25, eyes over ball or inside; hands complement each other; shaft and arms in a line; forearms parallel to target line in stroke's motion; return blade to position at address for impact.

5.01.09.05., Knox, Kenney, Tip from the Tour: swing the putter at a constant speed, Golf Dig., 38(3), Mar 1987, 154, put 2/3rds weight on R side; putter speed back equals speed thru; keep stroke smooth and on line longer; weight back helps hit up on ball for quicker roll / less skid. 5.01.09.05., Leadbetter, David & Huggan, John, David Leadbetter's Fault's and Fixes, (New York: Harper Collins, 1993), , 101: By its very nature, putting is a hugely personal matter. But whatever style you choose to trust on the greens, I believe it's important that you develop the ability to repeat a stroke which produces overspin; one which generates a consistent roll on the ball and one that combines the art of touch with the application of mechanics. 102: an overspin stroke requires a proper set up of arms and torso to allow a good stroke.

5.01.09.05., Love, Jr., Davis & Yocom, Guy, Golf Digest school: How to putt in the wind, Golf Dig., 39(4), Apr 1988, 129-130, wind can cause inconsistent ball contact: drill -- take putter back, hold it at top of backstroke for 10 seconds, then focus intently on the ball-impact spot and make the stroke; repeat some, then change hold time to 7 seconds; repeat some and then change to 5 seconds; then 3 seconds; then 1 second; then make your normal stroke without a hold at the top of the backstroke, hitting the ball solidly.

5.01.09.05., Low, George, Putting secrets of the man who gives the stars putting lessons, Golf Dig., 24(12), Dec 1973, 48-50, 50: When I say to hit a putt, I mean to hit it. You hit a putt the same as you hit any other golf shot. You don't baby it. I see people doing everything to a putt except hitting it, and I know they'll never be consistently effective. Many of them try to shove the ball, and they spin it to the right almost every time. Don't be afraid to give a putt a hit, even a delicate four-footer. Imagine that the ball has a tack in the back and you want to drive the tack in. You'd give it a solid rap, tight?

5.01.09.05., Mastroni, Nick, Putting: Tour tip for pure putting: The pros reveal the keys that have let them unlock success on the greens, Golf Mag., 27(9), Sep 1985, 58-61, 61: Most amateurs think they're looking at the ball when they're really just looking at an area -- the golf ball itself is not specific enough, he explains. Many players look at the top of the ball, if anything, but that's not where they're going to hit so they shouldn't be focusing on that spot. Floyd always concentrates on the exact point of impact between the blade and ball. He insists that by narrowing his focus of attention, he can tell if his head is moving during the stroke. Plus, he turns the ball so the manufacturer's name is at the spot that's about to be hit, serving as a further aid to homing in there. Floyd suggests that you imagine a small tack waiting to be driven into the ball. Then go ahead and tap it in.

5.01.09.05., Meeks, Eric & Schiffman, Roger, Take the putter back low and slow: U.S. amateur champion Eric Meeks, Golf Dig., 40(4), Apr 1989, 154-155, 154: low and slow going back and through; 155: establish and keep a fairly straight line with left arm, wrist, and putter shaft and then maintaining that angle back and through. If that angle stays consistent throughout the stroke, and if I've lined up correctly, the putterface will be square to the target at impact. Also, I try to make my follow-through a bit longer than my backswing to insure an accelerating stroke and solid contact. I feel as if my entire stroke is guided by my left arm and shoulders. My stance is slightly open, so it feels comfortable. [Note: left arm crooks at elbow in follow-through because he cocks right wrist slightly going back and keeps the right-wrist cock all the way through without allowing this to cause left wrist breakdown, so the elbow has to give a little to keep face on line -- sort of a follow-thru version of hooding, or anti-hooding]

5.01.09.05., Merrins, Eddie, Four keys to a repeating stroke, Golf Mag., 21(12), Dec 1979, 54-57, 54: on-line path; square clubface; touch; good roll. All these requirements demand different fundamentals [in putting] from those of the long game. [55] PUTTING GRIP: In putting, the handle should be more in the palms, under the pads of the thumbs. This grip releases all the pressure in the back three fingers of each hand and takes the turning muscles out of the stroke. You can now use a more upright lie putter for a more on-line stroke. You are now holding the putter primarily with the forefingers and thumbs, the touch fingers. Your upper arms will also be tucked into your rib cage, preventing your body from rotating during the stroke. [Note: arching wrists pulls pinky off shaft until only tip is on side of shaft, which is fine so long as left pinky makes good contact with grip; don't need pinky of right hand on shaft and don't want it; how tucking the upper arms prevents body from rotating is unclear]; [56] WEIGHT RIGHT: placing weight left causes lifting putter on backstroke and then hitting down on ball, and desirable overspin is not achieved -- you want as much overspin as possible for a true roll. weight right keeps blade low going back and ascends going through; As you make ball contact, you will strike it at or just above the equator, imparting the desired topspin. For this reason, you should put more weight on the right foot than on the left -- it makes for the right attack on the ball. Another reason for putting more weight on the right foot is that it sets the body and head behind the ball, which allows you to cock the head slightly to the left and get a much better view of the putter, target line and hole. Jack Nicklaus is noted for his use of this fundamental. SET LINE PROPERLY: need eyes over the ball and eye line running square with putt line; to check eyes, hand putter from bridge of nose and see that ball is directly down shaft; to check eye line, hold putter shaft beneath eyes to cover line of putt by blocking line as seen by each eye. Eye line right: push; left: pull.

5.01.09.05., Merrins, Eddie, Keep your putting simple, Golf Dig., 24(6), Jun 1973, 63-65, 65: I personally prefer to contact my putts with the putterhead moving upward on the forward stroke [for forward-spin and a truer roll]. good diagram showing contact with lower part of putterface, putterface moving up from bottom of arc, at equator, but trajectory of putterface COG passes just above ball's COG.

5.01.09.05., Michael, Tom & Golf Digest Editors, Golf's Winning Stroke: Putting, (New York: Coward, McCann, 1967; London: Souvenir Press, 1968), , 109: solid impact requires accelerating downstroke; if backstroke is too long, downstroke needs to slow and solid impact is difficult; also, changing the mind in mid-stroke (second guessing) also results in a loss of the solid hit because the club decelerates or wavers.

5.01.09.05., Michael, Tom & Golf Digest Editors, Golf's Winning Stroke: Putting, (New York: Coward, McCann, 1967; London: Souvenir Press, 1968), , 120: The third basic stroking principle is that the ball must be hit solidly. According to my lengthy and close observations, says Cary Middlecoff, one point held in common by all good putters is that they hit the ball solidly. They almost always bring the center of the clubface into contact with the center of the ball. This has to be an ironclad rule of good putting, because hitting the ball solidly is the only way that touch -- the unconscious ability to hit the ball at the desired speed, or momentum -- can be achieved. The putter who tends to hit the ball off center must on some occasions hit it more off center than on others, and will now and then, by chance, hit it center. Thus he can never be sure of the amount of force he is getting behind the ball, power being a combination of clubhead speed, clubhead weight, and meeting the ball squarely. 121: fix eyes on back of ball for solid contact; keep body still: 122: If the body moves, the head inevitably moves with it, and the eyes cannot remain focused on th4e ball. Also when the body shifts, the position of the hands with reference to the ball will alter, which will make solid contact considerably more difficult to attain.

5.01.09.05., Middlecoff, Cary & Michael, Tom, Master Guide to Golf, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1960), , 133: You'll find that if you contact the ball solidly on each stroke, you won't leave it short of the cup. Nearly all putts that stop short are caused by an off-center stroke rather than a failure to swing hard enough.

5.01.09.05., Miller, Johnny, Putting errors you make: Take the inside path, Golf Mag., 22(7), Jul 1980, 51, 51: most common fault is taking putter back outside the line; causes cut stroke path imparting sidespin; prevents a true roll and makes it difficult to square blade at impact. Pulled putts are the usual result. You also tend to pick the putter up with an out-to-in stroke, resulting in a descending blow and inconsistent contact. But the worst thing about taking the putter back outside is that, in time, you'll start to take it outside in your full swing as well. All of the really good putters take the putter back inside, with the blade opening slightly and naturally, and the putterhead staying low. Then they stroke through from the inside, squaring the putterface with a natural release. This type of stroke allows you consistently to strike the ball squarely in the center of the clubface.

5.01.09.05., Obitz, Harry & Farley, Dick, Why you need two strokes: Long and short putts pose different challenges and require different methods, Golf Mag., 22(6), Jun 1980, 52-55, 53: LONG PUTT SETUP: wider stance for more power and distance and to keep balance during exertion of more force; stand more erect and hold grip higher up; keep ball at bottom of arc, so farther back from left foot than with narrow stance; light grip pressure for touch has effect of increasing wrist action for distance without forcing stroke; make palms more parallel and opposing to allow wrist action; square feet and shoulders; On the mental side, imagine a six-foot diameter circle around the hole and aim to lag the ball within the circle. On a breaking putt, aim for a spot from which the ball will break into a circle. [Note: don't necessarily need wrists for more distance, just need a good backstroke and tempo; might consider one stance width, calibrated to allow sufficient distance power but kept for short putts, too, for consistency; may need a flat back for long putts]

5.01.09.05., Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter, Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting, (New York: Atheneum, 1986), , 28: [I]ndecision as to line and speed is often the main cause of infirm contact with the ball.

5.01.09.05., Pelz, Dave & Frank, James A., Why you can't putt: Ten mistakes you don't even know you're making, Golf Mag., 39(9), Sep 1997, 24-31, 34-35, 28: Mistake 4: You don't hit your putts solidly or squarely. [W]here contact is made on the face of the putter determines the percentage of swing energy transferred to the ball and can dramatically alter a putt's speed and distance. Golfers often have more than 10 percent uncertainty in the distance putts roll, as a result of missing the sweet spot (1 in a 10' putt; 3' in a 30' putt, etc.); short putts don't go in; The face angle of your putter at impact also affects direction. Golfers know that the starting direction of a putt is dramatically (but not totally) affected by the putter's face angle -- open, square, or closed -- at impact. But most players don't know how to tell if their putterface is perfect, pretty good, or bad, and they don't know how to practice squaring the face to make it consistently better. Solution: impact tape tells sweetspot impact and Teacher Clips give feedback in sweetspot hitting/stroking; tru-Putt tube about as thick in diameter as a dime and about 6 long, laid lengthwise along putt line, to groove square face angle at impact.

5.01.09.05., Pelz, Dave & Frank, James A., Why you can't putt: Ten mistakes you don't even know you're making, Golf Mag., 39(9), Sep 1997, 24-31, 34-35, 25: mistake 2: Parts of your body are turning when they shouldn't: To putt consistently well, it [putterface] must be square through impact, an inch or two on either side of the ball. but many golfers instinctively turn their bodies toward the target during the forward stroke, as much as 20 to 30 degrees; hip turn turns shoulders and this turns the putterface (actually, it turns the putter path, which may or may not result in oblique impact depending on path at impact); also, many golfers rotate forearms for release in putting, like the full shot, but forearms in putting should not rotate (don't need any power); rotation destroys accuracy; 26: Solution: keep hips square to target throughout stroke to keep shoulders and stroke path square; to diagnose hip movement, stand in a doorway with hip against jamb and putt; if you feel the hip moving against the jamb, you need to practice a pendulum stroke with the lower body still; to diagnose forearm rotation, place 6 pointers on shaft with double-sided tape so that pointers (below hands on shaft and another one can be attached to the back of the left wrist with an archer's wrist guard backwards, but just one is sufficient) aim parallel to target line and make stroke and hold the finish: examine the pointers to keep them parallel to the line; close eyes and work on a square-through stroke that keeps the pointers straight.

5.01.09.05., Rodgers, Phil & Barkow, Al, Play Lower Handicap Golf, (South Norwalk, CT: Golf Digest, 1986), , 98: putterhead level at contact, not upswing or downswing: There's a school of putting that says you should hit up on the ball to make it roll. It will roll all right, but not the way it should. Hitting the ball just as the putter begins to rise makes the ball more or less dive into the grass. It bites into the grass and produces what I call a heavy ball that doesn't always run true. Also, the tendency when hitting on the upswing is to swing the putter too much inside to out and catch the ball on the heel of the putter. The putt is hooked left. And, too, when hitting up on the ball there will be a natural deceleration of the putter at impact. Pendulums accelerate downward, not upward. I prefer to hit a light ball, one that rolls over the very top of the grass. The grain of the green has less effect on a light ball. It rolls better on greens in all sorts of conditions -- wet, bumpy, spiked and so on. You get a light ball by hitting it at the very bottom of your forward stroke. The clubhead is moving level with the ground -- in the flat spot -- at impact. However, the putter does not stay low throughout the stroke, and it shouldn't be forced to. The club wants to go up and down and should be allowed to do just that. But it wants to go up and down on the same arc in both directions. How do you know where the bottom of your [100] stroke is? Take your normal address position without a ball, and swing your putter as you do when actually hitting a putt. Notice where the blade just brushes the top of the grass. That's the bottom of your stroke. If you change ball-to-head alignment in your stance, your low spot will also change.

5.01.09.05., Shumate, Grady, Putting reminder: Stand up to stroke straight through, Golf Dig., 22(2), Feb 1971, 66, The secret to accurate putting is striking the ball with the putterface exactly square to the line on which you want to start the ball rolling. Square contact is encouraged by a very upright address position, with the eyes directly over the ball, which should be positioned fairly close to the feet. This position encourages a putting stroke that keeps the putterhead close to the target line from start to finish. The more you crouch, or the farther you stand from the ball, the more difficult you'll find it to swing the putterhead squarely through the ball along the line of the putt.

5.01.09.05., Smith, Gary, Teacher talk: The longest yard, Golf Mag., 39(5), May 1997, 142-143, 142: if the head slides, the body sways with it. This throws the putterface off line, making it difficult to time the downstroke and achieve square contact. One way to learn to keep a [143] steady head is to stare intently at a tiny point on the ball from set-up through contact.

5.01.09.05., Stockton, Dave & Barkow, Al, Dave Stockton's Putt to Win: Secrets for Mastering the Other Game of Golf, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), , 85: I never hit putts -- I always roll them. There is a distinct and important difference. Golfers who hit their putts accelerate the clubhead in the impact zone. The clubhead travels faster than it did in the backstroke and even in the early stage of the forward stroke. Most of the time, if the ball misses the hole it goes well past it, leaving a three- or four-foot tester coming back. Hitters have stretches when they make most of their return putts, but over time the little ones wear them out. Then they get tentative with their first putts and decelerate the clubhead before impact. Putts begin to come up short. Confusion reigns. Arnold Palmer and Tom Watson are notable examples of the hitter syndrome. [86] Putting a good roll on the ball means that the speed at which the ball is moving always gives it a chance of going in. People often make that observation about my putting, and I love to hear it, because it is exactly what I am after. Whereas the hot-rolling hit putt must be on the perfect line and has to catch a lot of hole to drop in, a putt that is rolling softly will always have a chance, even if a bit off line. It can work the edges of the cup. What's more, if a rolled putt misses it is unlikely to be far from the hole; the second putt should be a tap-in. What is the key to rolling the ball? There are a few. There is the feel for the speed of the green and having confidence in your reading of the line. There also is an attitude of patience and the calmness of mind and body that stems from it. A putt is never a traumatic, do-or-die situation. You know that if you keep rolling the ball softly you will make your share of putts, and you can wait your turn (which will come more often than it will for the hitter). On a purely technical basis, but one that derives from your feel and mindset, a soft roll is the product of the stroke having the same speed from backswing to impact to follow-through. On the longer putts you don't stroke faster and harder, you just make a longer stroke.

5.01.09.05., Tolhurst, Desmond, At last, a consistent putting stroke, Golf Mag., 18(4), Apr 1976, 54-56, 55: Pelz -- sweet spot hit just as important as speed for distance; We have found in our research that 95 per cent of putters make toe hits -- only 5 per cent hit on the sweet spot or the heel, and they're tour players. ... The toe hit compounds the error on left-to-right putts but is often cancelled out on right-to-left putts. The initial line is substantially controlled by the angle the putter face makes with the ball at impact. If the face is square, then the ball will basically go straight even if the line of swing is slightly outside-in or inside-out. However, if the face is closed at impact, the ball is not contacted right in the back, but to the outside somewhat, and the putt is pulled to the left. If the face is open, the ball is pushed to the right. 56: need to improve making sweet spot hits and making hits on line to improve touch and green reading. Teacher putter with prongs for sweet spot feedback; cardboard on top of four glasses and a thin striped carpet to train on-line hits: set cardboard on pillars of glasses to make a tunnel to obscure ball; putt ball under cardboard at a foot or so from ball; while ball is underneath, guess whether it is on line.

5.01.09.05., Tolhurst, Desmond, Feel -- and hear -- your putting stroke, Golf Mag., 18(5), May 1976, 78, the feedback from patented pulse putter. Invented by Pete Beery, president of N.G.C. Marketing Corp. A cavity behind face is coated with resin and transmit a sound via a tube into the hollow shaft up to the grip. Helps feel a sweet spot hit.

5.01.09.05., Tolhurst, Desmond, The Aoki stroke, Golf Mag., 22(10), Oct 1980, 50-53, 52: TOM KITE: The most important thing in any part of the game, and that includes putting, is to hit the ball in the same place on the clubface every time. ... Hitting the ball on the same part of the club face every time is the basis of touch in putting ....

5.01.09.05., Toski, Bob, The Touch System for Better Golf, (Norwalk, CT: Golf Digest, 1971), , 51: It is also important that you develop the habit of striking the ball with the same part of the putterface each time. Failure to do so will make putts that are struck with exactly the same force vary up to several feet in the distance they travel. An off-center strike on a 15-foot putt can make the ball finish two or three feet short of the hole.

5.01.09.05., Yocom, Guy, Golf Digest school: Toski's $250, 000 favor to Chi Chi, Golf Dig., 38(10), Oct 1987, 90, lifting the putterhead in backstroke prevents level putterhead at impact; when hitting up on the ball, the face has a tendency to open, imparting sidespin, which results in a roll hard to keep on the line to the end; you should hit slightly down on the ball and finish the stroke with the putter low to the ground, imparting topspin; to promote this action, position ball a bit further back: It makes it easier to deliver a downward blow.

5.01.09.05., Yocom, Guy & Aultman, Dick, Taming the putting jitters, Golf Dig., 37(5), May 1986, 67, 1. address the ball with eyes closer to the ball: bend over and crouch down, choke down on shaft; 2. zero in on the back of the ball for solid impact; 3. no alcohol or caffeine within 24 hours of playing.

5.01.09.05., Zoeller, Fuzzy, Slick tactics: I beat Augusta's greens on my first try by making these putting adjustments, Golf Mag., 22(4), Apr 1980, 60, light grip: think lag on all but very short or uphill putts; good roll / more solid hit by hitting toward heel; hit off toe for R-L; off heel for L-R breaking putts; good visualization of putt.

5.01.09.05.01., .-- , -- -- -- FACE ANGLE / -- PUTTERFACE / -- CLUBFACE, , ,

5.01.09.05.01., DeMattia, Connie, Golf Digest basics: From our schools: The short putts: Achieve a straight, square path, Golf Dig., 49(1), Jan 1998, 136, 136: While distance control is crucial on longer putts, short ones -- those from eight feet in -- don't require the putt to roll a precise distance. Direction is of far greater importance. If the ball tracks on a precise line, it can find the bottom of the cup even if struck a bit too firmly. Line the face up square and make a straight stroke back making sure not to rotate the clubface and make a straight stroke through. A longer stroke would require you to swing the club to the inside eventually, but all you need for short putts is a straight-back path.

5.01.09.05.01., Golf Digest, All About Putting, (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan; London: Kaye & Wind, 1973), , 96: three main points for stroke: First, the overall stroke should be smooth, rhythmic, fluid. It should be in no way hurried, jerky, frantic. It should have tempo. Second, the face of the putter should be square (at right angles) to the intended line of roll when it comes in contact with the ball. Third, the ball should be struck solidly; contact should be made between the center of gravity of the clubface and the back of the ball.

5.01.09.05.01., Golf Magazine, Equipment: The sourspot: Golf Magazine urges the manufacturers to mark the sweetspot precisely, Golf Mag., 26(11), Nov 1984, 30, pictures various clubs with marks versus actual sweet spot

5.01.09.05.01., Golf Magazine, High handicapper: Find the sweet spot: Hit your putts solidly for consistency on the greens, Golf Mag., 29(1), Jan 1987, 134,

5.01.09.05.01., Golf Magazine, Putting: There is only one way to putt: New research shows you must hit the ball at the exact bottom of your swing, if you're going to hit it with maximum smoothness, Golf Mag., 20(2), Feb 1978, 76,

5.01.09.05.01., Golf Magazine , Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting, (New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975), , 44: For accuracy in putting, the face of the putter must remain at right angles to the line throughout the stroke. You cannot stroke a putt on line by taking the putter back on the inside, and certainly not by taking it back on the outside. As you address the ball, the face of your putter must rest behind the ball at a right angle to the line you want the ball to take. And it must remain there until after the ball has left the face. 46: Never open or close the blade of the putter; try to keep the bade of the putter going straight through on the intended line.

5.01.09.05.01., Hall, Martin, The putting game: Hit the low point: Make your ball position match your putting style, Golf Mag., 37(2), Feb 1995, 82-83,

5.01.09.05.01., Harmon, Dick, Beware of the pendulum, Golf Mag., 40(2), Feb 1988, 84-85, for short strokes, use straight-back-straight through path with putterhead hanging like a pendulum directly above the ball; but for longer strokes, path must move inside back and then back to square at impact and then inside through. Straight-back path on lengthy putts creates 2 problems: tension in hands because path is unnatural and requires manipulation, which degrades touch and solid contact; also causes putterhead to rise up too much going back, whereas with arcing-inside path, putter stays lower; contact with a descending blow pops ball into turf and bounces it off line; ascending blow threatens sweet-spot contact and loss of power and distance. Pendulum motion is great for tempo but don't get too mechanical about it. Drill: stick a short pencil into the green [really...a bad idea] slanted in at an angle with eraser sticking out {so, can't use a golf score pencil-- no eraser]. The putt the pencil deeper into green: too downward: may hot top of pencil without good contact; too upward: may lift pencil out of green.

5.01.09.05.01., Huggan, John, How to make solid contact: Lower your score by hitting the ball squarely, from driver to putter, Golf Dig., 39(12), Dec 1988, 58,

5.01.09.05.01., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 145: Line up a striped range ball with the stripe perpendicular to the line of a 20-foot putt. Putt the ball and videotape the putt. When you view the tape in slow motion, you'll be able to see how quickly the ball starts rolling. Generally, it should skid for a short distance, a foot or less depending on the velocity of the putt [wrong: depends on speed of green], and then the stripe will start turning over. The quicker you can get the ball rolling and that stripe turning over, the better off you are. [146] The one thing you don't want to see is that stripe backing up before the ball starts rolling. That means you've hit it with too much loft on your putter, creating backspin and making the ball bounce. This will affect both accuracy and distance. The ball won't go as far when hit with the same force. You have to hit the ball with a flat clubface. Negative loft can drive the ball into the ground, and that will make it bounce. If you're on a firm, fast green, you may be able to hit the putt with a slight negative loft and actually get the ball rolling well. (You don't want to hit down on it, a point I'll discuss further when we get into the stroke itself.) But if you're on a thatchy green, like thick Bermuda, and you drive the ball the slightest bit into the ground, it will bounce, so you don't want negative loft there. In this case you actually need a slight bit of loft to help get the ball up on top of the thick grass so it can roll. 150: The putter should at least be swung low to the ground, and many good putters have a stroke that is slightly ascending through and beyond impact. The ball is hit with the putterface ideally having zero loft at impact. The hands, arms, and shoulders move as a unit, especially on a short putt as shown here.

5.01.09.05.01., Kite, Tom & Wade, Don, Five secrets for super putting: The Tour's most consistent player analyzes the game's greatest putters: What they have in common could help save you strokes, Golf Dig., 36(9), Sep 1985, 20-25, eyes over ball or inside; hands complement each other; shaft and arms in a line; forearms parallel to target line in stroke's motion; return blade to position at address for impact.

5.01.09.05.01., Lewis, Beverly, Perfecting Your Short Game, (New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1988), , 18: locating by tapping with coin, to check manufacturer's mark; always address the ball lined up with the sweet spot.

5.01.09.05.01., McLean, Jim & Pirozzolo, Fran, The Putter's Pocket Companion, (New York: Harper-Collins Publishers, 1994), , 35: dip ball in a glass of water and then putt; check the putterface to see the location of your impact point and practice hitting the sweetspot.

5.01.09.05.01., Michael, Tom & Golf Digest Editors, Golf's Winning Stroke: Putting, (New York: Coward, McCann, 1967; London: Souvenir Press, 1968), , 115: The putting stroke should be as simple as possible, says Casper, The simpler the stroke, the more effective and consistent it will be under pressure. 115: The wrist putters strive for simplicity by making the shortest possible stroke that will generate the power (clubhead speed) necessary to knock the ball to the hole. They reason that the shorter the stroke, the less is apt to go wrong with it. 115: The arm-and-shoulder putters seek simplicity by keeping wrist break to a minimum. It is obvious that to whatever extent the wrists are cocked on the backswing, they must uncock by that same amount n the forward swing, if the face of the putter is to be square with the line at impact. So if the wrists are largely kept out of the stroke, a longer backswing is required.

5.01.09.05.01., Middlecoff, Cary & Michael, Tom, Master Guide to Golf, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1960), , 143-144: Here are two rules to remember: Keep (1) the clubhead low along the ground and (2) the face of the putter square with the intended line of flight. The former rule [144] is important because you want the stroke to be a sweep rather than an up-and-down stroke. If you pick up the putter sharply on the backswing, you'll be forced to hit down on the ball. The face of the putter should be square to the line of flight, since that's the way it should be at impact. If you open or close the face on the backswing, you'll only have to readjust somewhere along the line. And this is a difficult adjustment.

5.01.09.05.01., Miller, Johnny, Putting errors you make: Take the inside path, Golf Mag., 22(7), Jul 1980, 51, 51: most common fault is taking putter back outside the line; causes cut stroke path imparting sidespin; prevents a true roll and makes it difficult to square blade at impact. Pulled putts are the usual result. You also tend to pick the putter up with an out-to-in stroke, resulting in a descending blow and inconsistent contact. But the worst thing about taking the putter back outside is that, in time, you'll start to take it outside in your full swing as well. All of the really good putters take the putter back inside, with the blade opening slightly and naturally, and the putterhead staying low. Then they stroke through from the inside, squaring the putterface with a natural release. This type of stroke allows you consistently to strike the ball squarely in the center of the clubface.

5.01.09.05.01., Ness, Tom & Aultman, Dick, Golf Digest Clinic: Objective: Consistent putting through solid contact, Golf Dig., 35(4), Apr 1984, 124-125, for a natural swing motion for solid contact, always point the putter handle at the suspension point in the neck throughout the stroke.

5.01.09.05.01., Obitz, Harry & Farley, Dick, Why you need two strokes: Long and short putts pose different challenges and require different methods, Golf Mag., 22(6), Jun 1980, 52-55, 52: 2 strokes: one for long putts, one for short putts (character builders under 10 feet); for short: need a short, stiff-wristed stroke that keeps blade square and has as few risks as possible for accurate direction; on long putts, need to lag the ball close within 3 feet in case it doesn't go in, so need a stroke with some wrist action to get superior distance control and touch. [53] SHORT PUTT SETUP: choke down for shorter swing arc and therefore greater control; It also puts your body more over the ball so that the top of your back, the suspension point for the swing of the arms and club, is parallel to the ground. Your swing will be as close to that of a pendulum as you can get, considering that you are standing to the side of the ball. The swing path will still be slightly inside going back and returning to the ball, but it will be as much straight back and through as possible. Square feet in stance to keep shoulders parallel to target line to keep swing on line; open shoulder alignment produces outside-in path; closed produces inside-out path; To cut out wrist action, firm up your hold on the club and turn both hands under the grip. Also, arch the wrists a little. On the mental side, imagine a track from the toe and heel of the putter to the right and left sides of the hole, then make your final target the back of the hole. The firmer you hit a short putt, the less break you need to play and the less chance there is that spike marks and other irregularities of the green will spoil the putt.

5.01.09.05.01., Pelz, Dave, How sweet it is! Hit the sweet spot for putting success, Golf Mag., 37(9), Sep 1995 64-65,

5.01.09.05.01., Pelz, Dave, Putting: Hit it flush: To be a consistently good putter, you must locate the sweet spot, then you must strike the ball on that spot repeatedly, Golf Mag., 25(7), Jul 1983, 40,

5.01.09.05.01., Pelz, Dave & Frank, James A., Why you can't putt: Ten mistakes you don't even know you're making, Golf Mag., 39(9), Sep 1997, 24-31, 34-35, 28: Mistake 4: You don't hit your putts solidly or squarely. [W]here contact is made on the face of the putter determines the percentage of swing energy transferred to the ball and can dramatically alter a putt's speed and distance. Golfers often have more than 10 percent uncertainty in the distance putts roll, as a result of missing the sweet spot (1 in a 10' putt; 3' in a 30' putt, etc.); short putts don't go in; The face angle of your putter at impact also affects direction. Golfers know that the starting direction of a putt is dramatically (but not totally) affected by the putter's face angle -- open, square, or closed -- at impact. But most players don't know how to tell if their putterface is perfect, pretty good, or bad, and they don't know how to practice squaring the face to make it consistently better. Solution: impact tape tells sweetspot impact and Teacher Clips give feedback in sweetspot hitting/stroking; tru-Putt tube about as thick in diameter as a dime and about 6 long, laid lengthwise along putt line, to groove square face angle at impact.

5.01.09.05.01., Pelz, Dave & Mastroni, Nick, Putt Like the Pros: Dave Pelz's Scientific Way to Improve Your Stroke, Reading Greens, and Lowering Your Score, (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1989), , ch 8, 58-66, 97-98

5.01.09.05.01., Smith, Horton & Taylor, Dawson, The Secret of Holing Putts, (New York: Barnes; London: Yoseloff, 1961), , 139: In my opinion, the worst fault in putting is that of rotating the blade of the putter during the backstroke. By doing this, you immediately destroy the true perpendicular alignment of the blade to the line of the putt. Rotation of the blade, particularly when combined with a lifting of the blade, produces a cut or slice at the point of impact and prevents the ball from rolling with a desirable overspin. You can remedy this fault by keeping a careful eye on your right hand, and by making sure that both the hand and the palm are facing the hole throughout the stroke. Remember that your right wrist should be arched downward and that only the backward-and-forward hinge of the right wrist should come into play.

5.01.09.05.01., Tolhurst, Desmond, At last, a consistent putting stroke, Golf Mag., 18(4), Apr 1976, 54-56, 55: Pelz -- sweet spot hit just as important as speed for distance; We have found in our research that 95 per cent of putters make toe hits -- only 5 per cent hit on the sweet spot or the heel, and they're tour players. ... The toe hit compounds the error on left-to-right putts but is often cancelled out on right-to-left putts. The initial line is substantially controlled by the angle the putter face makes with the ball at impact. If the face is square, then the ball will basically go straight even if the line of swing is slightly outside-in or inside-out. However, if the face is closed at impact, the ball is not contacted right in the back, but to the outside somewhat, and the putt is pulled to the left. If the face is open, the ball is pushed to the right. 56: need to improve making sweet spot hits and making hits on line to improve touch and green reading. Teacher putter with prongs for sweet spot feedback; cardboard on top of four glasses and a thin striped carpet to train on-line hits: set cardboard on pillars of glasses to make a tunnel to obscure ball; putt ball under cardboard at a foot or so from ball; while ball is underneath, guess whether it is on line.

5.01.09.05.01., Wininger, Bo, Seek solid contact on long putts, Golf Dig., 18(2), Feb 1967, 68, seek solid contact on long putts

5.01.09.05.01., Wood, Mark, Take hit out of your stroke: A smoother putting motion means a truer roll--a truer roll? NOT!!, Golf Dig., 45(3), Mar 1994, 148-149, 148: a smoother motion gives truer roll; the roller strokes putts end-over-end; the striker slaps putts usually with the face open or closed so the ball has sidespin and veers off line. Drill: use a range ball on a 10-foot chalk line; roll the ball to the hole without wobble. 149: to make solid contact for end-over-end roll, check to see that your hands are under the shoulders. When they are you'll find it easier to move the clubhead in a pendulum-type motion. On the course, use the ball's brand-name instead of the stripe. Make breaking putts straight by aiming square to a line to a spot beside the hole [tangent to the starting line of the curving path] in line with the maximum break.

5.01.09.05.02., .-- , -- -- -- SPIN / -- VERTICAL POINT OF PERCUSSION -- VERTICAL SPIN / -- TOPSPIN / -- OVERSPIN / -- BACKSPIN / -- UNDERSPIN, , ,

5.01.09.05.02., Alliss, Peter & Trevillion, Paul, Easier Golf, (London: Stanley Paul, 1969), , 67: like Bobby Locke, strike ball on top half so that top half moves first toward hole. Many of the great putters I know hit the ball way up to make sure the top half of the ball moves toward the hole first and not the bottom half. This, of course, was one of Bobby Locke's great secrets -- firmly striking the top half of the ball and getting it rolling forward, hugging the ground.

5.01.09.05.02., Archer, George, The putting stroke that won me the Masters, Golf Dig., 20(6), Jun 1969, 36-40, I locate my hands opposite the crease on my left trouser leg, which, related to the position of the ball [inside left toe], ensures that the putter shaft is vertical, and that I will contact the ball at the lowest point of the swing, rather than chopping down or hitting up at it. (40)

5.01.09.05.02., Ballesteros, Seve, Putting: The inside line: use my method for playing breaking putts, Golf Mag., 28(9), Sep 1986, 38-39, good for avoiding putting through the break and taking a little pressure off hitting the right pace with a more aggressive stroke: For right-to-left breaks, given a curved path to the break point, aim straight for the break point with an open stance and use a firm outside-in stroke contacting the ball with the toe to hit the ball to the break point firmly where it then joins the curve of the putt the rest of the way into the hole [sort of like my high-bank tracks]. 39: Naturally, the combination of cutting across the ball and catching it on the toe is going to cause the ball to move a hair to the right. By using this rightward spin, I can hit the ball on an inside line to the crest of the break and let it drift back and down to the hole. Face aimed square at break point. Now when the ball reaches the crest of the break, it is moving fast enough not to fall off course, but slowly enough to take the break. left-to-right: same procedure: for the R-L, the cut stroke throws the ball high enough with rightward spin and the toe-hit deadens the blow to let ball drift back onto the curve; for the L-R, the cut stroke favors moving the ball down the final segment of the curve past the crest, with the open stance throwing the ball high and the deadened cut spin drifting the ball back onto the curve. This way the ball will drift back to the normal break and toward the cup.

5.01.09.05.02., Barrier, Jerry, Overspin puts it in, Golf Mag., 15(7), Jul 1973, 75, shows trajectory of putter into ball; suggests that there is a time during ball-club contact where contact point rolls up ball as club trajectory naturally rises once it passes bottom; path of clubhead appears to pass through ball above center of gravity of ball from beginning -- needs sorting out based on time of impulse contact and distance ball moves laterally / transversely. A putt hit with sidespin has only one way to go in -- dead center. A putt hit with overspin can be hit a little off-line or off-speed and still drop. It will also hold its line in those crucial moments as it slows down nearing the cup. [decay phase] To get that overspin, you to hit the ball much as you do a driver. Strike the ball just as you start the upswing and let the blade follow through toward the hole. This will send the ball rolling end-over-end, and if you've read it right, you'll make it.

5.01.09.05.02., Clark, Craig, Pro pointer: Putting: Stroke the stripe, Golf Mag., 24(10), Oct 1982, 88, putt striped range balls to check true roll versus wobble

5.01.09.05.02., Cook, Chuch & Schiffman, Roger, How to become a complete putter: How to perfect the five impact factors for a consistently sound stroke, Golf Dig., 40(9), Sep 1989, 52-55, 55: The most consistent angle for the putter to strike the ball is at the bottom of the arc. To do this, the club must first describe a consistent arc. to create a consistent arc the butt of the puttershaft must always point to the same place on your body. Take another club and grip the two together, extending the other club until it touches your chest [near sternum]. Swing back and through to get a feel for a consistent arc. Then simply position the ball at the bottom of that arc, normally under the left side of your face.

5.01.09.05.02., Copeland, Don, Pro pointer: Practice-putt with a tennis ball, Golf Mag., 18(10), Oct 1976, 28, 28: trains not to make stroke too low to ground, where putterface causes ball to slide or skid with backspin rather than true rolling with overspin; hit tennis ball above center: Try to hit it above center. You can readily see, because of its larger diameter, when it starts off with a definite roll. You'll be surprised at your improved accuracy, especially on spike-marked or rough greens, where the ball must roll as much as possible.

5.01.09.05.02., Crafter, Jane, How to find your holing speed, Golf Dig., 44(11), Nov 1994, 54-59, 54: holing speed or optimum speed is one that carries the ball 9 inches past the cup; practice swinging the putterhead as the first step to achieving holing speed; 55: Drill: fishing sinker pendulum; tie a weight on a string and wrap the end of the string around your index finger so the weight hangs behind the shaft of the putter; swing the putter back and forth with a smooth and even stroke that synchronizes with the swinging weight; if you get jerky or lose rhythm, the stroke will fall out of synchronization with the pendulum weight; 56: to keep left wrist firm, keep right wrist firm: maintain right wrist cock throughout stroke; Drill: place a ball between inside of right wrist and shaft and putt while keeping ball in place; Impact: This sounds obvious, but the most solid putts occur when the middle of the putterface contacts the middle of the ball. In other words, a level hit -- one that produces the minimum of backspin or overspin -- is best. I've never been a believer in trying to hit down or up on putts. That's way too difficult to reproduce on a consistent basis. Drill; stack 2 quarters behind the ball and place the putterhead on the quarters; make the stroke by missing the quarters. Consistent strikes lead to consistent distance. 57: Path: straight back & through; Drill: board outside ball to practice not taking putter outside back; board inside ball to practice not taking putter inside back; two boards 1 putter width to practice straight strokes. 58: [Y]ou want the ball to be running at the hole as if it will finish about nine inches past. That gives it the best chance of going in. Any slower and it may veer off; any faster and you have to hit the middle of the cup for the ball to go in. If it doesn't, you'll lip out. Drill: place tee 9 behind hole; place 4 balls in line 4', 5', 6' and 7' away and putt in order, trying to stop them at tee; forget hole, let hole get in the way.

5.01.09.05.02., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 82: place a ball along the line of a putt; imagine three axes through the ball's center, one parallel to the line of the putt and horizontal (called the horizontal sidespin axis); one horizontal but perpendicular to the first axis and to the line of the putt (called the horizontal forward roll axis); and a vertical axis. A hook or slice action on a putt has to be made by imparting spin around the first horizontal axis, parallel to the line of the putt, so that the ball rolls around like a bullet-pass football as it goes forward. This spin will cause friction at the point of contact with the ground and this friction will tend to make the ball curve to the right if the ball spins from top to bottom rightward over this axis. However, this is not a spin that a putter can impart. in billiards, the cue stick must be angled down at one side of the top of the cue ball so that the blow is partly down and under as well as partly forward: such a ball will curve toward whichever side of the top is struck. A moment's thought will convince the reader that it is impossible to generate such a spin in a shot with a golf putter. The only spin which can be applied in this case is about a vertical axis, produced by drawing the face of the club across the ball at impact. Such a spin imparted in a golf drive will certainly produce a slice or a hook due to the aerodynamic forces generated as the spinning ball flies at high speed through the air. But for a ball rolling relatively slowly over the ground, such [aerodynamic] forces will not arise and the spin will not produce any deviation in the path of the ball. Thus, in spite of all the nonsense talked to the contrary, it is virtually impossible to hook or to slice a putt in golf, either deliberately or by accident.

5.01.09.05.02., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 73: unless the linear motion matches the rotational motion of a ball, the ball will skid. The friction on the bottom of the ball will slow the ball's linear motion and impart rotational motion. At some point, the two motions will match and the ball will roll without any skid. 74: This point is always whenever the ball's linear motion slows to 5/7ths of its starting speed, regardless of the roughness of the surface or the ball. Still, on a rough surface with more friction slowing the ball and speeding up the spin, the true skidless roll begins sooner than otherwise. In the case of a long putt across a fairly fast green, it is likely to be over before the ball has traveled 1.5 to 2 meters. The sliding or skidding which may form the first part of the motion of a ball over a level surface can be avoided in some cases if one wishes to produce a smooth rolling motion right from the start. To accomplish this it is necessary to impart rotation to the ball in the form of top spin at just the right rate to match the initial velocity. 75: With a billiard ball, such topspin is imparted by striking the ball with the cue at a point 7/10th of the diameter of the ball above the surface, with a horizontal blow parallel to the plane of the ball's horizontal equator. For a standard billiard ball, this is 3.5 cm above the surface. Billiard table cushions are shaped so the rail is also at this height, to provide true-rolling rebounds of balls off the rails.

5.01.09.05.02., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 76: Most golfers hit on the up when putting, projecting the ball a bit up in the air to start with, as seen from the dotted lines in the dew on greens, showing that the ball initially hops along the green in a series of small bounces. However, there could perhaps be some advantage in imparting initial top spin to the ball. There are two ways in which the design of a putter may help to bring this about. By providing a cylindrical head to the putter and making the diameter of the cylinder a little greater than that of the ball, it can be arranged that the ball is normally hit at a point somewhat above centre .... This will introduce some degree of top spin, as with a billiard ball cued above its centre. But it will also force the ball towards the ground at impact, so clearly the idea cannot be carried too far without disastrous consequences. Some initial top sin is also brought about in using a ping putter .... The centre of gravity of the head of this putter is low down and behind the face. The impact with the ball will normally occur at a point above this centre of gravity and hence, since the clubhead is on strings during impact, it will rotate slightly about its centre of gravity during this period. [T]his rotation about the centre of gravity C will be in an anticlockwise sense. This means that, to some extent, the face will be moving up across the ball while they are in contact, and so friction between the face and the ball will produce a degree of top spin. [similar to driver gear effect] Both these designs, then, should reduce skidding in the early stages. Whether they produce advantages of any practical consequences is another matter. [seems cannot eliminate skid entirely? what harm does skid do to line or distance? how much does either design reduce skid? what is effect of reduced skid on distance or line? is there any reason not to make the cylinder head contact the ball at precisely 7/10th of the ball diameter? what's harmful about hitting the ball towards the ground a bit? etc.]

5.01.09.05.02., Farnsworth, Craig L., See It and Sink It: Mastering Putting through Peak Visual Performance, (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1997), , 80-81: with eyes beyond the ball, the anchor point of the stroke aims the heel at the ball: results in a heel stroke to the left, weak and left; eyes inside the line shift the anchor point to aim the toe at the ball, with the result of a toe shot weak and right.

5.01.09.05.02., Golen, Ed, Swing reminder: Develop overspin roll with your putting stroke, Golf Dig., 18(8), Aug 1967, 53, striped-ball putting to check for presence of wobble

5.01.09.05.02., Golf Digest, All About Putting, (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan; London: Kaye & Wind, 1973), , 187: Clubface loft is another important consideration. Casper has this to say on the subject: The question of loft has been a matter of controversy for years. About the only thing the experts agree on is this: there must be some loft built into the putterface. Just how much loft is a matter of dispute, but I believe it largely depends on the type of greens upon which you are playing. If the greens in your section of the country are rough and slow, then you must definitely use a more lofted putter. This will enable the ball to move up and ride high on the grass immediately upon leaving the putterhead. If you used a putter with little or no loft on greens that are rather high, the ball would be driven into the blades of grass instead of on top of them, thus causing it to hop and jump on its way to the hole. If the greens in your area are smooth and fast, then you will need a putter with less loft. ... I would say that a putter with from three to four degrees of loft is suitable for all types of greens. If the greens are extremely fast, then find a putter with a little less loft to it. One of the major manufacturers of putters has determined that a putter with two-and-one-half to three degrees of loft will give the ball the best and most consistent spin off the face of the club.

5.01.09.05.02., Golf Digest, Primer 1995: Putting, Golf Dig., 46(2), Feb 1995, 76-78, 76: feet, hips, shoulders parallel to target line to keep stroke on line; ball inside left heel to contact ball with horizontal blow, not upward or downward; slight knee bend and bend from the hips to get eyes over ball, making it easier to keep the putter moving down the target line at impact.;

5.01.09.05.02., Golf Magazine, Straight hitter: Spring start: Set your putter straight, Golf Mag., 38(5), May 1996, 167, striped range ball putting

5.01.09.05.02., Golf Magazine , Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting, (New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975), , 85: If you are putting with the grain on Bermuda greens or any type of green that is fast, putt more toward the center of your stance. Putting off the left toe tends to put overspin on the ball and makes it move considerably faster. Playing it more toward the center of your stance gives you more control over the speed. Against the grain, you're better off putting off the left toe, since you want overspin to help the ball toward the cup.

5.01.09.05.02., Golf Magazine , Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting, (New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975), , 37: Wes Ellis, Johnny Pott, Orville Moody. To accomplish it, place the right hand up high on the grip of the putter, with the right elbow tucked close to the body. Then the left hand is placed directly below the right, but with all the fingers on the shaft, not overlapped. The hands should be spread slightly, with both thumbs pointing straight down the shaft and the right index finger hanging loose. The stroke is a combination arm and forearm movement. Any other type stroke, such as using the wrists only, would be defeating the purpose of this method. The cross-hand system provides a square hit and also produces additional overspin on the ball, which means the ball won't break as much. This will, at first, give you the tendency to leave the ball on the high side of the hole.

5.01.09.05.02., Golf Magazine , Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting, (New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975), , 57: To get overspin on the ball, advance your hands just a bit ahead of the ball, so that the face of the putter is slightly hooded. Mind you, the face isn't toed in. Rather, it leans just a shade forward, a few degrees off the perpendicular. From this position, most golfers find, a normal stroke will automatically impart that overspin which is so essential to accurate putting under some conditions.

5.01.09.05.02., Golf Magazine , Golf Magazine's Handbook of Putting, (New York: Harper & Row, 1973; London: Pelham, 1975), , 72: When the grain runs directly against the line of your putt, you must increase the ball's speed. Therefore, when putting into the grain, we'd like to make two suggestions: One is to get the ball rolling with good overspin, which will help it hold the line. To get this overspin, try to hit up a little bit more than normal on the ball. The other, of course, is to hit the ball a little harder than usual [74] because the resistance of the grain into which you are putting is bound to slow the ball down more quickly. 149; [pendulum path]: The ideal is to set the ball in motion toward the hole -- and keep it rolling until it gets there. So we strike the ball an upward blow with the club, coming into the shot as the blade passes the bottom of its arc and starts to rise. This will impart on overspin which is so desirable. 149: undesirable backspin can be caused by lifting the putter going back and rotation of the blade, pinching the ball with backspin or underspin. As a corrective, keep right wrist arched and start backstroke with a push of left hand and forearm, keeping the putter low to the ground. Horton Smith called this action hooding and claimed it to be one of the most important techniques of putting. Incidentally, hooding will help prevent the putter blade from rotating in your hands.

5.01.09.05.02., Kavanaugh, J.E., Golf Made Easy, (New York: William-Frederick Press, 1953), , Includes exercise to learn about ball's axis of rotation by stroking a rubber ball with the hand in various ways. reviewed in Golf World, 7, Jul 17, 1953, 14. topspin / overspin / backspin

5.01.09.05.02., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 145: Line up a striped range ball with the stripe perpendicular to the line of a 20-foot putt. Putt the ball and videotape the putt. When you view the tape in slow motion, you'll be able to see how quickly the ball starts rolling. Generally, it should skid for a short distance, a foot or less depending on the velocity of the putt [wrong: depends on speed of green], and then the stripe will start turning over. The quicker you can get the ball rolling and that stripe turning over, the better off you are. [146] The one thing you don't want to see is that stripe backing up before the ball starts rolling. That means you've hit it with too much loft on your putter, creating backspin and making the ball bounce. This will affect both accuracy and distance. The ball won't go as far when hit with the same force. You have to hit the ball with a flat clubface. Negative loft can drive the ball into the ground, and that will make it bounce. If you're on a firm, fast green, you may be able to hit the putt with a slight negative loft and actually get the ball rolling well. (You don't want to hit down on it, a point I'll discuss further when we get into the stroke itself.) But if you're on a thatchy green, like thick Bermuda, and you drive the ball the slightest bit into the ground, it will bounce, so you don't want negative loft there. In this case you actually need a slight bit of loft to help get the ball up on top of the thick grass so it can roll.

5.01.09.05.02., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 154: Most putters are shallower than the ball, so if the club is on the ground at the point of impact, you will hit the center of the ball somewhere near the top of the face. A deeper putter must be swung so at impact the putterhead is lower to the ground than with a shallower putter. If you are to hit the center of the ball with the center of the club, the clubface will be just slightly off the grass. A shallower putter should be swung a little higher off the ground, a quarter of an inch or so, to get solid contact and a true roll.

5.01.09.05.02., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 154: The angle at which the putter comes into the ball is important. It should be moving level or slightly upward. On fast, smooth greens, especially, you don't want to hit down on the ball. [but okay a little if green is firm and fast, since this minimizes bounce] Most times I putt with a shallower, blade-type putter, so I like to feel as if I'm striking the putt with a blow that is almost level to slightly ascending. The putter is swung back low and goes from low to higher on the forward stroke -- not a lot higher, but higher. And I don't mean add loft to the putter by flipping it. Keep the face flat as the putterhead swings through the ball on a slightly upward arc. A good thought is to make your impact position look just like your address position. Dave Stockton wants to feel the putter is low through impact but he uses a deeper, mallet-type putter so he has to have that feeling to keep the putter lower. [155] Jackie Burke, Curtis Strange, Jack Nicklaus, Gary Player, and Billy Casper keep the putter low through impact. But they are all swinging basically level. They're not hitting down on the ball. It's all done in an effort to hit the center of the ball with the center of the clubface with zero loft. Although Isao Aoki says you should never hit up on the ball, and he hits down on it because he grew up on the Korai greens of Japan where the ball sits down in the grass more, and hitting down helps get the ball up and on top as it rolls, you still don't want any negative loft with that downward stroke. Notwithstanding Aoki, nowadays I don't see too many good putters who grew up on fast greens hitting down on the ball. Fine putters like Ben Crenshaw, Paul Azinger, Nick Faldo, Payne Stewart, Greg Norman, Mark Calcavecchia -- and Tom Kite -- all hit up on it to a certain extent.

5.01.09.05.02., Locke, Bobby, Topspin puts it in, Golf Dig., 23(12), Dec 1972, 44-45,

5.01.09.05.02., Low, George & Barkow, Al, Top your putts: Legendary putting hustler George Low recommends a highly unorthodox stroke, Golf Mag., 25(4), Apr 1983, 99-106,

5.01.09.05.02., Mahoney, Tim & Schiffman, Roger, How to take the sidespin out of your putts, Golf Dig., 45(11), Nov 1994, 76-81, 76: [I]n putting, where the object is to produce as true and consistent a roll as possible, you want minimal or, ideally, no sidespin. Working with Billy Mayfair for 3 years. Setup and stroke technique to minimize sidespin: setup with feet and shoulders square on line parallel left to line to target; grip in the palms does not allow wrists to hinge; stroke path inside-square-inside. 78: Average golfers often don't relate the club's angle of approach to the type of sidespin that results. But actually, it has everything to do with it. Generally, the more from the inside the club swings, the more upward it travels when it meets the ball. In contrast, a club moving downward at impact will likely swing across the target line from outside to in. ... To achieve no sidespin on your putts, the putter must be moving level to the ground with a square clubface when it meets the ball. That level approach to the ball is the first step toward achieving a truer roll. Setting up to correct posture for allowing putter to swing back & through on its natural path: stand tall square to line at ball with putter properly gripped in hands and elbows naturally near hips & putter and hands held straight out horizontally away from belly; bend at the hips while keeping spine straight until putterhead about 1 foot above ground; stop bending at hips; bend at knees & allow arms to drop rest of the way until putterhead rests on green surface behind ball. [Note: seems an awkward way to let arms hang naturally & is disconnected from getting hands under shoulders; seems hands end up too close to body & inside shoulders].

5.01.09.05.02., Mahoney, Tim & Schiffman, Roger, How to take the sidespin out of your putts, Golf Dig., 45(11), Nov 1994, 76-81, 81: On the course, focus on the hole longer than on the ball. When Billy [Mayfair] takes his putting stroke into competition, he tries not to think about the mechanics of his method. Like most successful tour players, he has learned that to score well on the course, your mind can't be bogged down with analytical thoughts. Instead, he concentrates on his routine, which stays the same no matter how long -- or short -- the putt is. For Billy, this means looking at the hole for four seconds -- twice as long as he looks at the ball. Over the ball, all he thinks about is the length of the putt. You should do the same. It doesn't have to be the exact routine Billy uses. But you should focus on the hole (the distance and the line to it) longer than you focus on the ball.

5.01.09.05.02., Merrins, Eddie, Four keys to a repeating stroke, Golf Mag., 21(12), Dec 1979, 54-57, 54: on-line path; square clubface; touch; good roll. All these requirements demand different fundamentals [in putting] from those of the long game. [55] PUTTING GRIP: In putting, the handle should be more in the palms, under the pads of the thumbs. This grip releases all the pressure in the back three fingers of each hand and takes the turning muscles out of the stroke. You can now use a more upright lie putter for a more on-line stroke. You are now holding the putter primarily with the forefingers and thumbs, the touch fingers. Your upper arms will also be tucked into your rib cage, preventing your body from rotating during the stroke. [Note: arching wrists pulls pinky off shaft until only tip is on side of shaft, which is fine so long as left pinky makes good contact with grip; don't need pinky of right hand on shaft and don't want it; how tucking the upper arms prevents body from rotating is unclear]; [56] WEIGHT RIGHT: placing weight left causes lifting putter on backstroke and then hitting down on ball, and desirable overspin is not achieved -- you want as much overspin as possible for a true roll. weight right keeps blade low going back and ascends going through; As you make ball contact, you will strike it at or just above the equator, imparting the desired topspin. For this reason, you should put more weight on the right foot than on the left -- it makes for the right attack on the ball. Another reason for putting more weight on the right foot is that it sets the body and head behind the ball, which allows you to cock the head slightly to the left and get a much better view of the putter, target line and hole. Jack Nicklaus is noted for his use of this fundamental. SET LINE PROPERLY: need eyes over the ball and eye line running square with putt line; to check eyes, hand putter from bridge of nose and see that ball is directly down shaft; to check eye line, hold putter shaft beneath eyes to cover line of putt by blocking line as seen by each eye. Eye line right: push; left: pull.

5.01.09.05.02., Merrins, Eddie, Keep your putting simple, Golf Dig., 24(6), Jun 1973, 63-65, Good diagram of hitting up on ball through point above ball's center of gravity to impart overspin/topspin; from Swing the Handle -- Not the Clubhead.

5.01.09.05.02., Michael, Tom & Golf Digest Editors, Golf's Winning Stroke: Putting, (New York: Coward, McCann, 1967; London: Souvenir Press, 1968), , 121: Miss [Joyce] Wethered elaborates on the theory of the solid hit: The object that should be aimed at in striking the ball is to hit it in such a way that it runs toward the hole on a horizontal axis and is free from any sideways spin. Rolling the ball quite smoothly in putting -- to turn it, as it were, on an even keel -- is not quite as simple a matter as it looks, because there is an insidious tendency to turn it on an axis corresponding with the angle of the shaft of the club, which it makes in relation to the ground, and to give it the slight sidespin which is known as cutting the ball. 122: You should avoid hitting down on the ball, which tends to send it skidding along with some underspin on it instead of rolling straight over and over, and you should likewise avoid hitting the ball with the face of the putter traveling upward, which may lift the ball rather than roll it. [while some good putters hit down on the ball -- Lloyd Mangrum -- and others hit slightly up for extra overspin, these tactics are certainly exceptions to the general rule and the average golfers [123] would be better served by a stroke in which the putter moves along level with the top of the grass.

5.01.09.05.02., Mickelson, Phil, How to hole every putt: Forget mechanics: It's all about obtaining a straight, true roll, Golf Dig., 48(4), Apr 1997, 74,

5.01.09.05.02., Middlecoff, Cary & Michael, Tom, Master Guide to Golf, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1960), , 118: On straight and level putts, always position the ball the same way. Then from this key positioning, you can make slight alterations for downhill, uphill, right and left-breaking putts. An your putting pattern won't change. With very few exceptions, the better putters position the ball for a straight and level putt just inside the left toe or close to it. Some fine putters position the ball exactly opposite the center of the left toe. [119:] Others line up the ball off the left heel. The degrees of variation are insignificant. When you line up the ball well forward, you can sight along the intended line of flight much more easily. Moreover, you'll contact the ball at the end of the arc instead of hitting down on it for an underspin. The ball that rolls straight with no spin will hew to the line and plop into the cup more readily. And forward positioning makes for a steady roll with no English. But putting is not an exact science. And while I favor the forward positioning, some of you may find it more helpful to adopt another position, with the ball nearer the center of the feet, for instance. In any event, stick to your basic pattern once you've found it.

5.01.09.05.02., Miller, Johnny, Putting errors you make: Take the inside path, Golf Mag., 22(7), Jul 1980, 51, 51: most common fault is taking putter back outside the line; causes cut stroke path imparting sidespin; prevents a true roll and makes it difficult to square blade at impact. Pulled putts are the usual result. You also tend to pick the putter up with an out-to-in stroke, resulting in a descending blow and inconsistent contact. But the worst thing about taking the putter back outside is that, in time, you'll start to take it outside in your full swing as well. All of the really good putters take the putter back inside, with the blade opening slightly and naturally, and the putterhead staying low. Then they stroke through from the inside, squaring the putterface with a natural release. This type of stroke allows you consistently to strike the ball squarely in the center of the clubface.

5.01.09.05.02., Nicklaus, Jack, Overspin stroke smoothes a bumpy route, Sports Illus., 27, 17 Jan 1967, 56,

5.01.09.05.02., Palmer, Arnold, Champ's Clinic: How to get overspin: Arnold Palmer responds, Golf Mag., 21(12), Dec 1979, 70, only way to get overspin is to top the putt, and Palmer doesn't believe pros do that

5.01.09.05.02., Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter, Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting, (New York: Atheneum, 1986), , 128: former caddie at the golf club in Santander, near family farm at Pedrena, northern coast of Spain; brothers also caddies; On breaking putts, Ballesteros deliberately hooks and slices the ball, hooding the clubhead at impact for right-to-left putts and opening the blade for left-to-right putts. He scorns scientific proof that sidespin cannot influence the run of a putt once the ball has started rolling. I do not believe the scientists, he says, adding a personal truth that totally discounts the discredited laws of nature: Besides, hooking and cutting the ball improves my feel. There's confidence for you.

5.01.09.05.02., Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter, Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting, (New York: Atheneum, 1986), , 64: only a point, cannot be wide; The scientists tell us that it is vital to strike every putt on the sweet spot because only by so doing is it possible to achieve consistent weight of hit with every putt. If you contact the ball on either side of the sweet spot you will lose some of the mo- [65] mentum of the stroke and, in extreme cases, a loss of directional control as well. 65: So, although the face of the putter may be more than four inches long (many putters measure exactly four and one-quarter inches to match the diameter of the hole, but putters are available with faces as long as seven inches), its most effective striking area is about the size of a shirt button.

5.01.09.05.02., Palmer, Arnold & Dobereiner, Peter, Arnold Palmer's Complete Book of Putting, (New York: Atheneum, 1986), , 68; course of putt, not a roll but For about 20 percent of its travel the ball will actually be airborne, skidding above the grass with some backspin before skipping two or three times and then settling into an unbroken roll. During the roll phase, the ball rides on top of the blades of grass, and as it loses its forward momentum, it settles down onto the solid surface of the green, all of which will be clearly discernable in the dusty turf (you can observe the same pattern when putting on greens from which the early morning dew has not been swept). it makes no difference to this pattern whether you strike the ball on the upswing or the downswing, or even if you deliberately make contact high on the ball with a half-topping stroke in an attempt to get the ball rolling smoothly [69] right from the start.

5.01.09.05.02., Pelz, Dave, Spin-offs: Backspin can make the difference, Golf Mag., 28(9), Sep 1986, 50,

5.01.09.05.02., Pelz, Dave & Mastroni, Nick, Putt Like the Pros: Dave Pelz's Scientific Way to Improve Your Stroke, Reading Greens, and Lowering Your Score, (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1989), , ch 9, 67-78, 98, 164-172

5.01.09.05.02., Roberts, Loren, Take the hit out of your stroke, Golf Dig., 48(12), Dec 1997, 36, allow putterhead to lag behind hands in downstroke for better tempo, solid contact, a descending blow, and a better, truer roll; Many amateurs flip their wrists through impact when putting, which ruins their tempo and results in poor contact. For better tempo and solid contact, try to create a lag in your putting stroke. Start the forward stroke with your shoulders and left arm; you want to feel as though you're having the putterhead behind your hands for as long as you can. Maintain the hinge in the right wrist as you pull the putterhead through the ball. Having a lag in your stroke allows you to make contact with a descending blow, with the putterface sweeping down and through the ball, instead of up and over it. Take the hit out of your stroke, and you'll put a better roll on the ball.

5.01.09.05.02., Rodgers, Phil & Barkow, Al, Play Lower Handicap Golf, (South Norwalk, CT: Golf Digest, 1986), , 94: Never hit the ball on the upswing, but always at the very bottom of downswing. A pendulum has maximum acceleration at the very bottom of swing, when the putter is accelerating. When ball is hit in upswing, the club is accelerating. 95: The ball should have no sidespin, only perfect overspin. Only in the follow-through will the putterhead rise up, and it should be allowed to, but in proportion to how far it rises in the backstroke.

5.01.09.05.02., Smith, Horton & Taylor, Dawson, The Secret of Holing Putts, (New York: Barnes; London: Yoseloff, 1961), , 21: sand greens of Missouri; hard-packed; had the right to rake them smooth prior to putt; It was clear to my eyes that when I hit down on the ball, I caused the ball to push itself down into the green, leave a little pockmark in the sand, and then run erratically toward the hole. I also noticed that when I cut the ball -- that is, struck it so as to impart a cut' or clockwise spin on it -- even if it reached the cup it was apt to spin out and fail to sink. 54: cut stroke spin: The ball is spinning clockwise as a result of being hit from outside the true line of the putt. 54: hook spin results from the ball being hit from inside the intended line of the putt.

5.01.09.05.02., Smith, Horton & Taylor, Dawson, The Secret of Holing Putts, (New York: Barnes; London: Yoseloff, 1961), , 21: sand greens of Missouri; hard-packed; had the right to rake them smooth prior to putt; It was clear to my eyes that when I hit down on the ball, I caused the ball to push itself down into the green, leave a little pockmark in the sand, and then run erratically toward the hole. I also noticed that when I cut the ball -- that is, struck it so as to impart a cut' or clockwise spin on it -- even if it reached the cup it was apt to spin out and fail to sink.

5.01.09.05.02., Sones, Todd, Academy live: Arm your stroke, sink more putts, Golf Mag., 39(8), Aug 1997, 80-81, 81: for reliable and consistent distance, strike the ball on the center with the center of the face every time, not upward or downward; too vertical a stroke is usually caused by wristiness or allowing shoulders to control stroke rather than forearms. To do this, 3 keys: eyes over ball; hands under shoulders, weight balanced on balls of feet. Set up from the top down. Position your eyes over the ball first. Then adjust your arms and hands so they hand under the shoulders. Keeping your eyes and upper body in place, adjust your stance until your weight is balanced over the balls of the feet. Position ball so that it is just ahead of bottom of arc; in Sones' set-up this is 1-2 back inside left instep. Lock wrists, start club back with arms on a nearly level path; keep putterhead low back and through. On all but very short putts, try to end the follow-through with the left forearm past the left hip. If too wristy or shoulders too much in control of stroke, left forearm will end up in front of body inside of left hip.

5.01.09.05.02., Stobbs, John, The Anatomy of Golf: Techniques and Tactics, (New York: Emerson, 1962), , 80: another old method regaining favor in recent years; Americans Walker Cup members Hyndman and Beman in 1959 Amateur Championship at Sandwich were the two finalists and both used this method. It has many similarities with the push method, outlined above. The stance is square and compact, with the arms and elbows relaxed and held close well into the body. But in general it is not a relaxed sort of method. It is a stiff, restricted swing at the ball -- rather than a basic push. The club is swung back fairly freely and slowly, again with the back of the left [81] wrist and hand held tautly facing the hole; but the actual stroke is more a strike than a swing. (There is, in fact, nothing of stroke about the stroke!) The ball is struck -- and that's the end of it! The club face stops sharply, still facing exactly along the line. No attempt is made to give the ball the sort of true-running momentum of a swinging putt. The ball is rapped firmly and authoritatively, at the hole; and the theory is that the hole has got to look pretty sharp if it is to jump out of the way of it! A refinement of this method, used reputedly among others by the great Australian professional Peter Thomson, is to strike the ball slightly downward as well. To put backspin on a ball is a physical impossibility. But it is a fact that in the hands of Thomson and others this method sometimes seemed to enable them to hit the ball a little harder, and thus make it run more certainly over the ground, while at the same time making it draw up relatively quickly for the speed it began at. The harder you can hit any golf shot in relation to the length needed, the more authoritatively you are able to play it. As with all putting theories, if the man who putts this way believes in it, then it works! Locke used this method, but coming into ball from the inside.

5.01.09.05.02., Stockton, Dave & Barkow, Al, Dave Stockton's Putt to Win: Secrets for Mastering the Other Game of Golf, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), , 151: For the most part I align the ball with the same spot on the putter face, although on extremely fast downhill putts I will put the ball slightly toward the toe. Still, if you have a soft touch and use a light putter, you shouldn't have to do that.

5.01.09.05.02., Stockton, Dave & Barkow, Al, Dave Stockton's Putt to Win: Secrets for Mastering the Other Game of Golf, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), , 94: I like rerouting because it reflects a more intuitive, nonmechanical approach to putting. It is much better than trying to swing the club straight back from the ball and straight through. Many golfers try for this path, and there is a swarm of training devices designed to develop it. It is meant to get the ball rolling with perfect overspin. But I like to have a slight hook spin on the ball, not enough to take it off line, but enough to make it hug the ground -- it doesn't bounce as much. In any case, a straight-back-straight-through stroke is something that has to be worked on; it is a conscious effort and, as such, is too machinelike.

5.01.09.05.02., Swash, Harold & Yun, Hunki, Three basics for pure putts: England's guru of the greens tells you how to knock 'em in, Golf Dig., 46(12), Dec 1995, 87-88, 90, 87: The key to good putting is the area one inch either side of the ball. Nothing else matters. Through impact, the putterhead must be: (1) looking squarely at the target, (2) traveling on a slightly upward path and (3) accelerating smoothly. Drill: on a piece of paper, draw parallel lines two inches apart; place sheet on green with lines perpendicular to line of putt; aim closest edge of paper to a target, e.g., a tee; set ball inside edge of paper at rear corner; set up to ball with face centered behind ball and toe extending out along back edge of paper so line of face coincides with back edge of paper; if set-up feels or looks strange, you have been misaligned and aiming poorly with face; stroke putt and check follow through to see that face stayed square. 88: Well struck putts don't skid or bounce much; they roll. For the best roll, the putterhead must be moving upward and strike the ball with a glancing blow. Position ball in front of bottom of arc and place hands ahead of the ball. The bottom of the stroke is determined by the relationship between your sternum and the ball. Always position sternum (and chin) directly in line with putterhead and behind ball, even if ball is being played back or forward in relation to feet. This way, the bottom of the arc is always kept just behind the ball.

5.01.09.05.03., .-- , -- -- -- SPIN / -- LATERAL POINT OF PERCUSSION / -- LATERAL SPIN / -- HORIZONTAL SPIN / -- SIDE SPIN / -- SIDESPIN, , ,

5.01.09.05.03., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 82: place a ball along the line of a putt; imagine three axes through the ball's center, one parallel to the line of the putt and horizontal (called the horizontal sidespin axis); one horizontal but perpendicular to the first axis and to the line of the putt (called the horizontal forward roll axis); and a vertical axis. A hook or slice action on a putt has to be made by imparting spin around the first horizontal axis, parallel to the line of the putt, so that the ball rolls around like a bullet-pass football as it goes forward. This spin will cause friction at the point of contact with the ground and this friction will tend to make the ball curve to the right if the ball spins from top to bottom rightward over this axis. However, this is not a spin that a putter can impart. in billiards, the cue stick must be angled down at one side of the top of the cue ball so that the blow is partly down and under as well as partly forward: such a ball will curve toward whichever side of the top is struck. A moment's thought will convince the reader that it is impossible to generate such a spin in a shot with a golf putter. The only spin which can be applied in this case is about a vertical axis, produced by drawing the face of the club across the ball at impact. Such a spin imparted in a golf drive will certainly produce a slice or a hook due to the aerodynamic forces generated as the spinning ball flies at high speed through the air. But for a ball rolling relatively slowly over the ground, such [aerodynamic] forces will not arise an the spin will not produce any deviation in the path of the ball. Thus, in spite of all the nonsense talked to the contrary, it is virtually impossible to hook or to slice a putt in golf, either deliberately or by accident.

5.01.09.05.03., Kite, Tom, Putting errors you make: Hit it on the sweet spot, Golf Mag., 22(7), Jul 1980, 50, 50: The amateurs I play with don't strike the ball solidly. They hit many of their putts toward the toe or heel of the putter and very few from the sweet spot of the clubface. As a consequence, it is just about impossible to gauge distance or aim accurately. Locate sweet spot; tap until no twist; The only way to strike putts solidly is to stay steady over the ball. But to do this, I don't think it's necessary to focus your attention on any one thing, such as the back of the ball, during the stroke. For me the key to staying steady is a stance that supports you, so you're not inclined to move all over the place.

5.01.09.05.03., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 147: the ideal is to make contact on the sweet spot, but some putt on toe or heel consistently. The problem is, there is less margin for error toward the heel or toe. Putting on toe and missing it farther out toe yields a big loss of energy and a clubface twist; missing it more toward sweet spot does not twist club but yields a gain in energy that will result in a putt that does not go the distance intended [although extra distance is seldom a real problem]. That's the value of toe-and-heel-weighted putters -- they are more stable on a miss-hit. There is no advantage on a perfect hit. A good practice device to see where you are making contact is to put some chalk on the back of a few balls, hit some putts and look at the markings on the clubface.

5.01.09.05.03., Miller, Johnny, Putting errors you make: Take the inside path, Golf Mag., 22(7), Jul 1980, 51, 51: most common fault is taking putter back outside the line; causes cut stroke path imparting sidespin; prevents a true roll and makes it difficult to square blade at impact. Pulled putts are the usual result. You also tend to pick the putter up with an out-to-in stroke, resulting in a descending blow and inconsistent contact. But the worst thing about taking the putter back outside is that, in time, you'll start to take it outside in your full swing as well. All of the really good putters take the putter back inside, with the blade opening slightly and naturally, and the putterhead staying low. Then they stroke through from the inside, squaring the putterface with a natural release. This type of stroke allows you consistently to strike the ball squarely in the center of the clubface.

5.01.09.05.03., Pate, Jerry, U.S. Open quick tip: Fast greens: Hit ball on toe of putter, Golf Dig., 40(6), Jun 1989, 140, 140: One feature of the U.S. Open that never varies is the speed of the greens. You can always rely on them being punitively fast, registering anything up to 12 or 13 on the stimpmeter. Especially from above the cup, there are times when the ball has merely to be set in motion in order to reach the hole. When I am faced with such a situation, I use this little trick to give me more margin for error. It is one you can use, too. I simply address and strike the putt off the toe of the blade. This has the effect of deadening the contact between club and ball. There is no need for me to alter my stroke or decelerate into the putt. I can, in effect, stroke the ball a little harder than if I were making contact on the sweet spot of the putter. Try it next time you are faced with a slippery downhill or sidehill putt.

5.01.09.05.04., .-- , -- -- -- LOFT AT IMPACT, , ,

5.01.09.05.04., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 145: Line up a striped range ball with the stripe perpendicular to the line of a 20-foot putt. Putt the ball and videotape the putt. When you view the tape in slow motion, you'll be able to see how quickly the ball starts rolling. Generally, it should skid for a short distance, a foot or less depending on the velocity of the putt [wrong: depends on speed of green], and then the stripe will start turning over. The quicker you can get the ball rolling and that stripe turning over, the better off you are. [146] The one thing you don't want to see is that stripe backing up before the ball starts rolling. That means you've hit it with too much loft on your putter, creating backspin and making the ball bounce. This will affect both accuracy and distance. The ball won't go as far when hit with the same force. You have to hit the ball with a flat clubface. Negative loft can drive the ball into the ground, and that will make it bounce. If you're on a firm, fast green, you may be able to hit the putt with a slight negative loft and actually get the ball rolling well. (You don't want to hit down on it, a point I'll discuss further when we get into the stroke itself.) But if you're on a thatchy green, like thick Bermuda, and you drive the ball the slightest bit into the ground, it will bounce, so you don't want negative loft there. In this case you actually need a slight bit of loft to help get the ball up on top of the thick grass so it can roll.

5.01.09.05.04., Kite, Tom & Dennis, Larry, How to Play Consistent Golf, (New York: Golf Digest/Tennis, 1990), , 149: Most good putting [154] clubs have one to four degrees of loft on the face. Therefore, in order to strike the ball with zero loft, you have to have your hands slightly in front of the ball at impact. If you let your wrists break too quickly and flip the face upward through impact, you add loft to the club. That gets the ball slightly in the air and makes it bounce. So I think having your hands slightly ahead of the ball at impact is important. A good thought is to have your hands slightly ahead of the ball at address, then return to that same position at impact, keeping constant whatever angle there is between the shaft and your left arm.

5.01.09.05.04., Stockton, Dave & Barkow, Al, Dave Stockton's Putt to Win: Secrets for Mastering the Other Game of Golf, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), , 41: The firmness of a green is another way to read speed, but this is strictly a matter of feel. On some greens, you can feel the speed just by walking on them. Oakmont is like that -- you're kind of glad you're wearing spikes, so you don't slip and fall. In [42] fact, you can get the feel of a green's speed by how your spikes go into the ground. Is there a certain resistance? Does it feel brittle? Then the green likely will be fast. If you feel you're walking on a cushion, if the green is moist, the green likely will be relatively slow. 50: On hard, fast greens, speed is crucial to success. Putts are not going to break as much as it appears, no matter how softly you roll the ball, because the ball is going to have some pace on it. To counter this I apply some stroke technique. I try to keep the [51] putter very low to the ground during the stroke, even letting it ride on the grass a touch going back. I won't forward press quite as much as normal, if at all, because I don't want to take a chance on popping the ball, having it jump off the face. When a downhiller is really slick, I won't forward press at all, using the loft of my putter to produce a softer roll. I might even begin the stroke with my hands slightly back of center so that the loft of the putter kind of deadens the impact.

5.01.09.05.05., .-- , -- -- -- TRANSVERSE STROKE / -- CUT STROKE / -- HOOK STROKE, , ,

5.01.09.05.05., Brady, Maree C., Instant lesson: Imagine two left feet for better putting, Golf Dig., 40(5), May 1989, 73, 73: One of the many reasons for misdirected putt is an incomplete stroke. A putterblade that does not strike the ball squarely and falls away to either side of the putting line after impact will cause the ball to waver around the cup. Tip: imaging you have 2 left feet, a 2d one closer to the hole; from top of backstroke, move putter through ball all the way to inside of 2d left foot to guarantee that your putter will more forward and the ball will hold its line. [Note: vague concept of ball holding its line]

5.01.09.05.05., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 82: If the face of the club is drawn across the ball at impact, friction will occur between clubface and ball. [83] A transverse frictional force will now come into play and the ball will no longer move off in a direction square to the face. Thus, dragging the face across the ball from out to in will produce a deviation to the left, while a swing from in to out will result in one to the right. It might be noted in passing that the deviation to be expected is thus exactly opposite to that which would occur if such a shot produced a hook or slice. ... [A]lthough the effect is present, it is fairly small. So, swinging the clubhead at the ball at an angle of 10 degrees with the intended line will only produce a deviation of the ball of 2 degrees from that line. the same error in setting the clubface square at impact would produce a 10-degree error in the path of the ball. It is clearly much more important that the clubface should be square than that the clubhead should be swung exactly along the intended line.

5.01.09.05.05., Daish, C.B., The Physics of Ball Games, (London, English Universities Press, Ltd., 1972), , 155: When the blade of the putter is square to the intended line but the path of the blade cuts across the ball at an angle Theta, only part of the forward velocity of the putter V is transferred to the ball (VcosTheta), and the transverse motion of the blade spins the ball by friction and sends it rolling sideways. The ball's forward velocity v1= MVcosTheta(1+e) / M+m; the sideways velocity of the ball v2= 2/7 x VsinTheta; 156: the direction of the resultant velocity of the ball, Phi, the angle off the intended line, is given by tanPhi = v2/v1 = 2/7 x [(m+m)/m(1+e)] x tanTheta; the coeffic of rest. in a putt is about 0.8; the mass of a typical putter head is about 300g and that of the ball is 46g. For a path Theta of 10 degrees, Phis is less than 2 degrees. in a 1-meter putt this would produce an error of about 3 centimeters.

5.01.09.05.05., Goetze, Vicki, A putting primer: Tips and drills from an acknowledged Tour expert, Golf Dig., 42(9), Sep 1991, 90-92, 94, 92: Bad habits can appear so quickly in your putting stroke that it's dangerous to take it for granted. Faults such as stopping your stroke too soon after impact, or letting the putterhead pull to the left after striking the ball can easily creep into your stroke if you're not constantly checking your technique. Whenever I'm in a putting slump -- leaving the ball short or missing to the left a lot -- those faults are the first things I look for. Drill: flat and level 3-foot putt; then, from my normal address position, I simply push the putter forward, extend my follow-through and hold it for a couple of seconds. That encourages a full and straight-down-the-line finish to my stroke.

5.01.09.05.05., Mahoney, Tim & Schiffman, Roger, How to take the sidespin out of your putts, Golf Dig., 45(11), Nov 1994, 76-81, 76: [I]n putting, where the object is to produce as true and consistent a roll as possible, you want minimal or, ideally, no sidespin. Working with Billy Mayfair for 3 years. Setup and stroke technique to minimize sidespin: setup with feet and shoulders square on line parallel left to line to target; grip in the palms does not allow wrists to hinge; stroke path inside-square-inside. 78: Average golfers often don't relate the club's angle of approach to the type of sidespin that results. But actually, it has everything to do with it. Generally, the more from the inside the club swings, the more upward it travels when it meets the ball. In contrast, a club moving downward at impact will likely swing across the target line from outside to in. ... To achieve no sidespin on your putts, the putter must be moving level to the ground with a square clubface when it meets the ball. That level approach to the ball is the first step toward achieving a truer roll. Setting up to correct posture for allowing putter to swing back & through on its natural path: stand tall square to line at ball with putter properly gripped in hands and elbows naturally near hips & putter and hands held straight out horizontally away from belly; bend at the hips while keeping spine straight until putterhead about 1 foot above ground; stop bending at hips; bend at knees & allow arms to drop rest of the way until putterhead rests on green surface behind ball. [Note: seems an awkward way to let arms hang naturally & is disconnected from getting hands under shoulders; seems hands end up too close to body & inside shoulders].

5.01.09.05.05., Miller, Johnny, Putting errors you make: Take the inside path, Golf Mag., 22(7), Jul 1980, 51, 51: most common fault is taking putter back outside the line; causes cut stroke path imparting sidespin; prevents a true roll and makes it difficult to square blade at impact. Pulled putts are the usual result. You also tend to pick the putter up with an out-to-in stroke, resulting in a descending blow and inconsistent contact. But the worst thing about taking the putter back outside is that, in time, you'll start to take it outside in your full swing as well. All of the really good putters take the putter back inside, with the blade opening slightly and naturally, and the putterhead staying low. Then they stroke through from the inside, squaring the putterface with a natural release. This type of stroke allows you consistently to strike the ball squarely in the center of the clubface.

5.01.09.05.05., Rose, Clarence, Tip for the Tour: Stroke and drop your putter to the ground to check path, Golf Dig., 40(1), Jan 1989, 120, 120: with open stance, cut strokes finish to the left; need to finish on line; tip: at end of stroke, drop putterhead onto ground to check on-line path; if putter drops on line, no cut stroke.

5.01.09.05.05., Trevillion, Paul, The perfect putting method, part 1, Golf Mag., 15(9), Sep 1973, 49-56, 51: need to concentrate less on mechanics and more on where the ball will go; steady putter with left hand and extend right hand down shaft for control; Runyan had right idea to split hands but didn't get eyes low enough close to ball and ground. Hand near hitting action and eyes close to ground. Method based on top billiards players and croquet players. Putter shaft reduced by 5. 1963 British Open playoff 2 rounds: Bob Charles 57 putts, Phil Rodgers 65 putts; Charles won by 8 strokes. Trevillion sank countless thousands of 4-ft putts without missing. 52: Hands down shaft like fingers on pencil. Pivot of putt is between shoulders at the top of the spine. The conventional position tends to lower the right shoulder and raise the left; if there is any movement in the shoulders, the left shoulder tends to move out, resulting in a cut stroke. 53: sole for solid: the putterhead should be directly parallel with the green so producing the sweet sound of a well-struck putt. Drop a coin from bridge of nose to check eye position. Right hand is naturally dominant, and forcing left hand into action will cause conflict and interference; let right hand be dominant and keep left out of stroke. 54: Travis was right-hand golfer; keep grip of left hand relaxed; golf is only stick game with hands overlapped; in days of gutty ball, 3 of big 6 used overlapping (Vardon, Taylor Braid) and 3 did not (Alex Herd, Harold Hilton & John Ball Jr.). 56: allow subconscious to work; the training and experience of the body through hands can do many tasks, including putting, without conscious thinking about how to do the task. Rolling the ball into a hole relies upon the subconscious.

5.01.09.05.05., Van Sickle, Gary, Billy Breaks through: For someone who's more consistent than brilliant, Mayfair's emergence was right on cue, Golf World, 49(30), 1 Mar 1996, 18-19, 22, 24, 22: 3 things made 1995 a great year for Mayfair: [One. confidence from getting close to winning]; Two. He rededicated himself to his short game .... The funny thing was, chipping and putting were always the biggest parts of Mayfair's practice regimen, even as an amateur. As a junior, he was a fixture on the practice green at Occotillo, a public course [near Arizona State University], and it was his short game that carried him through the sweltering humidity of a brutal 36-hole U.S. Amateur final in 1987 at Florida's Jupiter Hills. That short game focus changed once he got on tour. You've got these beautiful driving ranges, all brand new Titleists, Mayfair said. You can't help but beat balls. I got so [24] much more into my golf swing, which I'd never done before. I had always been very natural. I got too much into swing mechanics for a couple of years. So I stopped beating as many balls and went to work on my short game. He also went back to his old putting stroke, which had a little loop on the backswing and seems to impart a little left-to-right spin on the ball. Trying to eliminate that loop didn't work. He also went back to his old stance. He returned to Milwaukee in the summer of 1994 for the Greater Milwaukee Open's media day as defending champion, saw a picture of himself from that win and realized he was standing too far from the ball. I just moved closer to the ball, Mayfair said. That's all it took. Three: getting settled in domestic life.

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