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PUTTING SCIENCE STUDIES

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ONLINE & PDF PUTTING STUDIES

HTML: Gender, Skill, and Performance in Amateur Golf: An Examination of NCAA Division I Golfers By: Scott J. Callan, Ph.D. and Janet M. Thomas, Ph.D., Sports Journal, 9(3) (2006).

HTML:Training in timing improves accuracy in golf. In this experiment, the authors investigated the influence of training in timing on performance accuracy in golf. During pre- and posttesting, 40 participants... From Journal of General Psychology, January 01 2002 by Terry M. Libkuman, Hajime Otani, Neil Steger Page(s): 15

HTML: The Physics Teacher, Oct 2002 v40 i7 p411(4) The proof is in the putting. Scott K. Perry

HTML: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, March 2001 v72 i1 pA-50 Practice Schedule Effects on Learning the Golf Putt and Pitch. (Brief Article) PDF: Practice Schedules (233 KB)

HTML:Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Sept 1995 v66 n3 p262(6) Does mental practice work like physical practice without information feedback? Gabriele Wulf; Gernot Horstmann; Byongho Choi. PDF: Mental Practice (467 KB)

HTML:Insight on the News, August 12, 1996 v12 n30 p38(1) New gadgets for golfers. (state-of-the-art golfing equipment) Dan Whipple. PDF: Quadrax & Stabilaser (223 KB)

HTML:The Economist (US), Nov 25, 1995 v337 n7942 p38(1) Japan's amazing inventor. (entrepreneur and eccentric Yoshiro Nakamats has invented a number of serious and silly items such as the musical golf putter)(Brief Article)

HTML:Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, March 2001 v72 i1 pA-51 The Effects of Subjective Estimation of Performance Outcome During the KR-Delay Interval on the Acquisition and Retention of a Motor Skill. (Statistical Data Included)(Brief Article) PDF: Subjective Estimation of Outcome (208 KB)

HTML:Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, March 2000 v71 i1 pA-58 The Effects of Visual Aiming Cues on Golf Putting. (Brief Article) PDF: Aiming Cues (213 KB)

HTML:Journal of Sports Sciences, August 2002 v20 i8 p607(7) The effects of outcome imagery on golf-putting performance. (Statistical Data Included) J.A. Taylor; D.F. Shaw. PDF: Outcome Visualization (1.95 MB)

HTML: British Journal of Psychology, May 1998 v89 n2 p249(15) Differences between implicit and explicit acquisition of a complex motor skill under pressure: an examination of some evidence. J.E.H. Bright; O. Freedman. PDF: Learning under Pressure (32 KB)

HTML: British Journal of Psychology, Nov 1996 v87 n4 p621(16) Knowledge and conscious control of motor actions under stress. Lew Hardy; Richard Mullen; Graham Jones. PDF: Action under Stress (905 KB)

HTML: Journal of Sport Behavior, June 1996 v19 n2 p148(15) The effect of putting-confidence on putting-performance. Morris M. Picken; Robert J. Rotella; Bruce M. Gansneder (ABSTRACT).

HTML: Perceptual and Motor Skills, April 1993 v76 n2 p387(4) Comparing two putting styles for putting accuracy. Robert G. Gwyn; Charles E. Patch. Author's Abstract

HTML: British Journal of Psychology, August 1992 v83 n3 p343(16) Knowledge, knerves and know-how: the role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. R.S.W. Masters (ABSTRACT).

HTML: American Journal of Physics, Feb 1991 v59 n2 p129(8) Putting: how a golf ball and hole interact. Brian W. Holmes (ABSTRACT).

HTML: Journal of Sports Sciences, Feb 2006 v24 n2 p143-147 A new device for evalutaing distance and directional performance of a golf putter. Johnny Nilsson (ABSTRACT).

HTML: Dr George Shoane's Vision and Sports Science Research, Rutgers University: Studies of head and eye movement in putting.

PDF: Scientific World Journal, Mar 2003 n3, p122-137 Effect of putting grip on eye and head movements during the golf putting stroke. Dr George Hung (Shoane) (Full Text).

Other Putting Science Files

PDF:Karlsen & Nilsson, Putting Direction Control (615 KB)

PDF:Alan Kornspan et al, Mental Imagery (39 KB)

PDF:Optimal Performance in Golf (contents) (32 KB)

PDF:Potts & Albert, Laser Alignment in Putting (254 KB)

Geoff Mangum - Neurophysiology of Golf Putting: The Mayo Clinic Takes a "Stab" at the Yips

Geoff Mangum, The "Mechanics of Instinct" - The Neurophysiological Paradigm for Golf Putting

PDF:Lawrence Lampert, Eye Dominance (11 KB)


SPORT DISCUS DATABASE
Citations to Putting Science Studies

To: <geoff@puttingzone.com>
Date: Tuesday, November 20, 2001 10:45 AM
Subject: Sport Discus golf putting 232 records

Records
SPORT DISCUS Search History
* #1 (golf putting) (232 Records)

Record 37 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Temporal control of impact movement: the time from departure control hypothesis in golf putting
AU: Coello,-Y; Delay,-D; Nougier,-V; Orliaguet,-J.-P
JN: International-journal-of-sport-psychology-(Rome) 31(1), Jan/Mar 2000, 24-46 Refs:36, Total Pages: 23
AB: Anticipation-coincidence tasks have been widely studied in order to better understand the coupling between perceptual information and motor action. Based on Lee's (1976) original time-to-contact theory the present study analysed the temporal control of golf putting. Though the conventional tau theory had difficulties in accounting for the visual control of accelerating movement, it was suggested here that the temporal control of impact can be achieved on the basis of an optical variable: tau departure. The time from departure control hypothesis suggests that the starting position rather than the final position, plays a crucial role in the on-line visual control of golf putting. In order to test the tau departure hypothesis, a kinematic analysis of downswing was carried out when vision of the club was either allowed or occluded during movement execution. Results agreed quite well with the theoretical predictions and it was concluded that the time from departure control strategy might account for visually guided accelerating movements in golf putting and other striking skills.

Record 39 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Using the five-step strategy to teach motor skills to older adults
AU: Steinberg,-G.-M
JN: JOPERD-The-journal-of-physical-education, recreation and dance (Reston,
Va.) 71(5), May/June 2000, 40-41;46 Refs:19, Total Pages: 3

Record 47 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Mechanical interaction of the golf ball with putting greens
AU: Hubbard,-M; Alaways,-L.-W
AE: mhubbard@ucdavis.edu
SO: In, Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998 World Scientific
Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999, p.429-439, Total Pages: 11
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 48 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: The effects of golf ball construction on putting
AU: Lemons,-L.-D; Stanczak,-M.-B; Beasley,-D
AE: lemons@ww-interlink.net
SO: In, Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998 World Scientific
Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999, p.423-428, Total Pages: 6
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 49 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: A bivariate probability model for putting proficiency
AU: Tierney,-D.-E; Coop,-R.-H
SO: In, Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998 World Scientific
Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999, p.385-394, Total Pages: 10
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).
PY: 1999

Record 50 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Hole size, luck, and the cruelty of putting: a thought experiment on the imapct of quantization in golf
leslie@ece.concordia.ca
AU: Landsberger,-L.-M
SO: In, Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998 World Scientific
Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999, p.363-370, Total Pages: 8
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 51 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Variable and constant practice: ideas for successful putting
AU: Guadagnoli,-M.-A; Holcomb,-W.-R
SO: In, Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998 World Scientific
Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999, p.261-270, Total Pages: 10
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 52 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Peak putting performance: psychological skills and strategies utilized by PGA Tour golfers
AU: Beauchamp,-P.-H
AE: sportdoc@videotron.ca
SO: In, Farrally, M.R. (ed.), Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998
World Scientific Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999,
p.181-189, Total Pages: 9
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 53 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Attentional interference as motor program retrieval or as available resources and the effects on putting performance
AU: Anthony,-N
SO: In, Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998 World Scientific
Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999, p.174-180, Total Pages: 7
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 54 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Using "swing thoughts" to prevent paradoxical performance effects in golf putting
AU: Jackson,-R.-C; Wilson,-R.-J
AE: rcjackson@glam.ac.uk
SO: In, Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998 World Scientific
Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999, p.166-173, Total Pages: 8
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 55 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Psychophysiological indicators of confidence and habituation during golf putting
AU: Crews,-D; Lutz,-R; Nilsson,-P; Marriott,-L
AE: Crews@espe1.la.asu.edu
SO: In, Science and golf III: proceedings of the 1998 World Scientific
Congress of Golf, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics, c1999, p.158-165, Total Pages: 8
PE: humank@hkusa.com
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (3rd : 1998 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 56 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Realistic expectations on the putting green: within and between days trueness of roll
AU: Koslow,-R; Wenos,-D
JN: Perceptual-and-motor-skills-(Missoula, Mont.) 87(3 Part 2), Dec 1998, 1441-1442 Refs:4, Total Pages: 2
AB: To improve putting performance, golfers have often used goal-setting techniques which require realistic performance expectations. Thus, examining whether external factors such as putting green irregularities affect putting performance is crucial to goal setting. The purpose of the study was to examine fluctuations in the trueness of roll of a golf ball across a green. A ball was mechanically rolled across a green in the morning and afternoon on a day when there was normal play and on a day when the course was closed to play. Analysis indicated that significant fluctuations in distance and dispersion were present throughout these time frames, i.e., the greatest distance of roll and the least amount of dispersion were present in the morning and on the day closed to play. Golfers should take into account these external fluctuations in trueness of roll when establishing goal-setting procedures involving putting skills.

Record 57 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Differences between actual and imagined putting movements in golf: a chronometric analysis
AU: Orliaguet,-J.-P; Coello,-Y
JN: International-journal-of-sport-psychology-(Rome) 29(2), Apr/June 1998, 157-169 Refs:32, Total Pages: 13
IS: 0047-0767
AB: Several studies suggested the existence of a functional equivalence between motor imagery and motor production. However, most of them concerned with sequential or long-duration motor tasks. The aim of this experiment was to analyse the timing of a short-duration movement, the putting movement in golf, carried out either actually or mentally. Results showed that in actual movement, amplitude increased as a function of target distance whereas movement time remained stable over different target distances (principle of isochrony). By contrast, the results were clearly different in imagined movement condition. Duration of imagined movement was higher than duration of actual movement and increased as a function of target distance. Contrary to what was usually reported with long-duration movements, our results suggest the absence of a temporal equivalence between imagined and actual movement for short-duration performances. In this latter case, imagined and actual movements seemed not to share the same temporal rules of production, at least those concerning the regulation of movement time as a function of movement amplitude. Overall, the results are discussed in relation with the specific influence of mental practice on short and long-duration movements.

Record 58 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Movement control in golf putting
AU: Delay,-D; Nougier,-V; Orliaguet,-J.-P; Coello,-Y
JN: Human-movement-science-(Amsterdam) 16(5), Oct 1997, 597-619 Refs:51, Total Pages: 23
AB: The purpose of the study was to understand how force is controlled for impact movements such as golf putting. Expert players (10) and control subjects (10) executed a putt as accurately as possible, in order to reach a target distance of 1, 2, 3, or 4 m. Movements of the club were recorded at 200 Hz via a SELSPOT system. Overall, the results showed that, in order to increase club velocity at the moment of contact with the ball with increasing distance of the target, subjects increased the downswing (DS) amplitude maintaining DS movement time constant. The change in force required to reach the different distances seemed to rely on an adjustment of the magnitude of the motor command within the same time period. Furthermore, our results showed that the movement of putting consists primarily in specifying the amplitude of the Backswing (BS) as a function of the distance of the target. This gives rise to a motor impulse originating the force-time function required for an adequate DS movement.

Record 59 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: The effect of different goal strategies on achievement-related cognitions, affect, and behavior during learning of a golf-putt
AU: Steinberg,-G.-M
SO: University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Mich, 1997, 2 microfiches (134 fr.)
PY: 1997
NT: Thesis (Ph. D.) - University of Florida, 1996. Includes bibliography.

Record 60 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: A comparison of a multi-component behavioral package and a self-directed manual for teaching a sport skill
AU: Toogood,-S.-A
SO: University Microfilms International, Ann Arbour, Mich, 1997, 3 microfiches (263 fr.)
IB: 0612163415
PY: 1997
NT: Thesis (M.A.) - University of Manitoba, 1996. Includes bibliography.

Record 61 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Effects of the dynamic constraints and the perceptual context in golf putting
AU: Delay,-D; Nougier,-V; Orliaguet,-J.--P
CA: International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP)
SO: In, Lidor, R. (ed.), Bar-Eli, M. (ed.), Innovations in sport psychology : linking theory and practice : proceedings, Netanya (Israel), The Zinman College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, The Wingate Institute for Physical Education and Sport, 1997, pt.I, p. 230-232
CN: World Congress of Sport Psychology (IXth : 1997 : Wingate Institute, Israel).

Record 62 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: A search for alternative secondary task methods of implicit skill acquisition
AU: Masters,-R.-S.-W; MacMahon,-K.-M.-A; Chamberlain,-S
SO: In, Marconnet, P. (ed.) et al., First annual congress, frontiers in sport
science, the European perspective. May 28-31, 1996, Nice, France. Book of abstracts, Nice, European College of Sport Science, 1996, p. 218-219, Total Pages: 2
CN: European College of Sport Science (1st : 1996 : Nice, France).

Record 64 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: The effect of putting-confidence on putting-performance
AU: Pickens,-M.-M; Rotella,-R.-J; Gansneder,-B.-M
JN: Journal-of-sport-behavior-(Mobile, Ala.) 19(2), June 1996, 148-162 Refs:9, Total Pages: 15
AB: Much research in sport psychology has examined the relationship between confidence and performance during a competitive event by administering a questionnaire to subjects about an hour before the competition and then correlating responses to questionnaire items with performance results. A major criticism to this approach is that if the time between confidence assessment and performance is too large, intervening cognitions, not assessed, may occur and cause the original assessment to be less relevant. In order to account for this drawback, a study was designed which allowed for confidence assessment during competitive performance. Fifty-four golfers participated in an 18-hole putting match against a competitor. Immediately before the first putt of each hole, players stated whether they were very, somewhat, or not confident of making the putt they were attempting. After the first putt of each hole, players stated how confident (very, somewhat, or not) they were during the putting stroke that they had made the putt attempted. From post-experiment questionnaire responses, any player who stated that he could not report confidence without taking the result into account was omitted from the analysis. Confidence measures taken before and during the first putt of each hole were then correlated with putting performance for each hole. Putting performance was defined as whether or not subjects made or missed the putt they attempted. Results showed that confidence during putting had a stronger relation with performance than confidence before putting. Confidence also had a stronger relation with performance during matchplay competition than medalplay competition. Future research might examine many different measures of performance to determine if the criterion variable used affects the relationship found between confidence and performance.

Record 65 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Effect of practice schedule variation on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of an applied motor skill by children with and without mild mental retardation
AU: Sutlive,-V.-H
SO: Microform Publications, Int'l Inst for Sport & Human Performance,
University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore, 1996, 3 microfiches (201 fr.) : negative, ill.; 11 x 15 cm
NT: Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, 1995; vita; includes bibliography (l. 158-166).
AB: Thirty-six non-disabled (ND) and 36 children with mild mental retardation (MMR) were randomly assigned to blocked (BP), random (RP), or mixed (MP) practice groups. Subjects putted a golf ball from 75cm, 100cm, and 125cm. BP groups performed 12 trials of one distance before attempting the other distances. RP groups performed 12 trials per distance randomly. MP groups practiced sets (4 trials/set) in random order. Following a 10 minute rest, subjects performed 4 trials from each distance in serial order. Next, a transfer test (TR1) of 12 trials from 150cm was given. A second transfer test (TR2), consisted of six holes of miniature golf. Absolute, variable, and total error scores, and number of putts made were analyzed. The dependent measure for TR2 was total game score. Analysis of dependent measures revealed significantly better performance by the MD group. Practice schedule results indicated the BP group performed significantly better than the other two groups during acquisition and retention. No significant schedule differences were obtained for TR1. Results of TR2 found no significant differences among practice schedules within the ND group; however, among subjects with MMR, the MP group had significantly higher game scores than the BP and RP groups, which did not differ significantly.

Record 66 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Investigation of the contextual interference effect in the manipulation of the motor parameter of over-all force
AU: Goodwin,-J.-E; Meeuwsen,-H.-J
JN: Perceptual-and-motor-skills-(Missoula, Mont.) 83(3 Part 1), Dec 1996, 735-743 Refs:22, Total Pages: 9
AB: This investigation examined the contextual interference effect when manipulating over-all force in a golf-putting task. Undergraduate women (N = 30) were randomly assigned to a Random, Blocked-Random, or Blocked practice condition and practiced golf putting from distances of 2.43 m, 3.95 m, and 5.47 m during acquisition. Subjects in the Random condition practiced trials in a quasirandom sequence and those in the Blocked-Random condition practiced trials initially in a blocked sequence with the remainder of the trials practiced in a quasirandom sequence. In the Blocked condition subjects practiced trials in a blocked sequence. A 24-hr. transfer test consisted of 30 trials with 10 trials each from 1.67 m, 3.19 m, and 6.23 m. Transfer scores supported the Magill and Hall (1990) hypothesis that, when task variations involve learning parameters of a generalized motor program, the benefit of random practice over blocked practice would not be found.

Record 67 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Psychological influences on golfers' putting performance
AU: Beauchamp,-P.-H
SO: University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Mich, 1996, 4 microfiches (298 fr.)
NT: Thesis (Ph. D.) - Universite de Montreal, 1995. Includes bibliography.

Record 68 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: A comparison of the effectiveness of visual, verbal, and kinesthetic imagery on motor performance, as well as corresponding psychophysiological responses
AU: Kim,-J
SO: University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Mich, 1996, 2 microfiches (169 fr.)
PY: 1996
NT: Thesis (Ph. D.) - University of Florida, 1994. Includes bibliography.

Record 70 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Direct golf putting dynamics and strategies
AU: Scott,-J; de-Mestre,-N
SO: In, de Mestre, N. (ed.), Mathematics and computers in sports. Held at Bond University, Queensland, Australia 11 to 13th July 1994, Queensland, Bond University, 1994, p. 135-146, Total Pages: 12
CN: Mathematics and computers in sport. Conference (2nd : 1994 : Qld.).

Record 72 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Effects of varying imagery perspective and imagery time on performance of the putting stroke in golf
AU: Hough,-F.-F
SO: University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Mich, (1994), 3 microfiches (209 fr.)
NT: Thesis - Temple University. Includes bibliography.

Record 73 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: The ageing of a great player; Tom Watson's play in the US Open from 1980-1993
AU: Riccio,-L.-J
SO: In, Cochran, A.J. and Farrally, F.R. (eds.), Science and golf II: proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf, London, E & FN Spon, 1994, p. 210-215
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (2nd : 1994 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 74 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: How to lower your putting score without improving
AU: Hoadley,-B
SO: In, Cochran, A.J. and Farrally, F.R. (eds.), Science and golf II: proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf, London, E & FN Spon, 1994, p. 186-192
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (2nd : 1994 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 75 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: A study of golfers' abilities to read greens
AU: Pelz,-D
SO: In, Cochran, A.J. and Farrally, F.R. (eds.), Science and golf II: proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf, London, E & FN Spon, 1994, p. 180-185
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (2nd : 1994 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 76 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Controle du geste de putting au golf: analyse cinematique
AU: Delay,-D; Nougier,-V; Orliaguet,-J.-P
SO: Dans, Audiffren, M. et Minvielle, G. (eds.), Psychologie des pratiques physiques et sportives: actes du congres..., Poitiers, Presses de l'U.F.R. A.P.S. de l'Universite de Poitiers, 1994, p. 235-236
CN: Congres international de la Societe francaise de psychologie du sport (1994 : Poitiers, France).

Record 79 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Impulse variability and golf putting accuracy
AU: Seon-Jin,-K; Kang-Hun,-L; Chung-Hee,-C
JN: Korean-journal-of-sport-science-(Seoul) 5, 1993, 123-137 Refs:17
AB: The purpose of this study was to examine the impulse variability model and to apply the result to the golf putting accuracy. Impulse variability model means that movement accuracy is proportional to the size of impulse variability which is caused by the inherent noise of muscle contraction. Therefore, it can be considered that if the size of impulse is same there is no change in impulse variability. Experiment I was designed to examine impulse variability function when the impulse size was same and the shape was varied by changing movement amplitude and movement time. The result showed that impulse variability was significantly different in various impulse shapes and the minimum impulse variability appeared in the medium range of movement. Experiment 2 was designed to identify which condition was best in the same putter head speed caused by the same impulse. The most accurate condition appeared when the subject swang the putter head in a preferred movement range and time. From the two experiment, it is suggested that impulse variability was nonlinear and the most accurate movement condition was in the preferred state.

Record 80 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: The effect of pre-shot strategies on golf putting
AU: Fairweather,-K.-G; Potgieter,-J.-R
JN: S.A.-journal-for-research-in-sport, physical education and recreation
(Verwoerdburg) 16(1), 1993, 35-40 Refs:14
AB: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of two cognitive strategies on the accuracy of performance of the motor skill of putting a golf ball. Male golfers (N = 24) with single-digit handicap were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a behavioural pre-shot routine group; a cognitive-behavioural pre-shot routine; and a control group. Although the final results were inconclusive there are indications that a structured attentional pre-shot routine which includes imagery and relaxation could improve putting performance.

Record 81 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt. (letter)
AU: Shaw,-J.-C
JN: Medicine-and-science-in-sports-and-exercise-(Baltimore, Md.) 25(9), Sept 1993, 1084-1085 Refs:3
NT: A comment on an article of the same title by J.D. Crews and D.M. Landers appearing in volume 25 number 1 (January 1993) of this journal. Includes a reply from the authors of the orginal article.

Record 82 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt
AU: Crews,-D.-J; Landers,-D.-M
JN: Medicine-and-science-in-sports-and-exercise-(Baltimore, Md.) 25(1), Jan 1993, 116-126 Refs:31
AB: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the attentional focus patterns associated with golf putting performance. Highly skilled golfers (N=34) were assessed using electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of the motor and temporal cortices during the 3 s prior to the golf putt. Players completed 40, 12-ft putts and performance was measured in cm error from the hole. Three measures of EEG were analyzed: slow shift, 40 Hz, and relative power spectrum; representing readiness to respond, focused arousal, and general cortical activity, respectively. All three EEG measures suggested a decrease in left hemisphere, motor cortex activity as the player prepared to putt. Relative power measures also showed significant increases in right hemisphere activity in both the motor and temporal cortices. During the last second preceding the putt, increased right hemisphere alpha activity correlated with and predicted less error. Hemispheric differentiation was also reduced as subjects prepared to putt and few, but important, differences existed between the motor and temporal cortices. An important distinction occurred in the alpha band. In the motor cortex left hemisphere alpha increased significantly over time while in the temporal cortex, right hemisphere alpha increased as subjects approached stroke initiation. Differences that existed between the attentional patterns from the present study and past sport studies may relate to the use of one versus two hands to initiate the response.

Record 84 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Effect of heart rate deceleration biofeedback training on golf putting performance
AU: Damarjian,-N.-M
SO: Microform Publications, Int'l Institute for Sport and Human Performance, University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore, 1993, 1 microfiche (68 fr.) : negative; 11 x 15 cm
NT: Thesis (M.S.) - University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 1992;
includes bibliography (l. 53-58).
AB: The present study examined the effect of heart rate (HR) deceleration biofeedback training on golf putting performance. It was hypothesized that those subjects trained to produce a pattern of HR deceleration (phasic biofeedback) would putt better than those subjects trained to produce a lowered HR level (tonic biofeedback) or those subjects not trained in HR patterning (control). It was also hypothesized that during putting, subjects in the phasic biofeedback condition would show greater HR deceleration during the four seconds preceding stroke initiation than subjects in either the tonic biofeedback or control conditions. The results did not support the first hypothesis. The phasic biofeedback group did not putt significantly better than the tonic biofeedback and control groups. The results of this study did not provide support for the secondhypothesis. The phasic biofeedback condition did not show greater HR deceleration than the tonic biofeedback or control conditions. Self-report measures of attentional focus did not help explain the results of this study. It is possible that although subjects in the biofeedback conditions learned to control their HR during training, the transfer of this skill was inhibited due to the constant schedule of feedback during training. Future research is needed to determine the biofeedback procedures that optimize the retention and transfer of HR decelerationfrom training to the preshot routine of the golf putt.

Record 85 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Cognitive strategies for coping with stress in a simulated golfing task
AU: Johnston,-B; McCabe,-M.-P
JN: International-journal-of-sport-psychology-(Rome) 24(1), Jan/Mar 1993, 30-48 Refs:32
AB: This study examined the efficacy of approach and avoidance strategies for coping with stress experienced during sports performance. Subjects were 90 undergraduate female students whose ages ranged from 17 years to 40 years. The approach task was to putt ten golf balls into an easy target while music and noise was playing to distract subjects from the task. Subjects were trained in either approach (mental rehearsal) or avoidance (attentional focus) strategies. The relationship between approach and avoidance coping strategies, the nature of the task, the appraisal of perceived demand and perceived capability, and performance were examined. Some evidence was found to support the classification of stressful transactions as requiring either an approach or an avoidance strategy. The use of the appropriate strategy enhanced perceived capability and improved performance. Evidence was also found to support the conceptualisation of stress as an appraised imbalance between perceived demand and perceived capability. These results suggest that the training and use of an appropriate strategy can lower stress and enhance the performance of people in a sporting situation. The theoretical and professional implications of these findings are discussed.
FRAB: Les auteurs ont etudie l'efficacite que presentent des strategies d'approche et d'escamotage pour faire face a des situations de stress pendant des performances sportives. On a pris comme echantillon un groupe de 90 etudiantes agees entre 17 et 40 annees, dont la tache d'approche etait celle de taper dans 10 balles de golf en leur faisant parcourir une trace en forme de S avant d'entrer dans le trou. La tache d'escamotage etait de taper dans 10 balles de golf et d'atteindre un objectif facile, tandis qu'une musique et du bruit distrayaient les sujets de leur tache. Les sujets etaient entraines dans les deux strategies d'approche (repetition mentale) et d'escamotage (focalisation). On a examine les rapports entre strategies d'approche et d'escamotage, nature de la tache, evaluation de la tache et perception de la capacite, et performance. Les donnees semblent confirmer l'idee selon laquelle dans des situations de stress il faut des strategies aussi bien d'approche que d'escamotage. L'utilisation de la strategie la plus appropriee augmente la perception de la capacite et ameliore la performance. Les donnees, en outre, confirment l'hypothese de la definition de stress en termes de desequilibre valuatif entre perception de la demande et perception des capacites. Ces donnees mettent en evidence que l'entrainement et l'utilisation de strategies appropriees peuvent reduire le stress et ameliorer la performance sportive. On discute, en outre, les implications theoriques et professionelles connexes a ces resultats.

Record 86 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Comparing two putting styles for putting accuracy
AU: Gwyn,-R.-G; Patch,-C.-E
JN: Perceptual-and-motor-skills-(Missoula, Mont.) 76(2), Apr 1993, 387-390 Refs:8
AB: The accuracy of two different putting styles, golf's standard style, using a conventional putter with a pendulum stroke, versus using a pendulum stroke with the relatively new long putter (52 in.), was compared for 60 men and 28 women in beginning college physical education golf classes. A nine-hole Bermuda grass putting green had holes ranging in distance form 2 to 50 ft. Each student was given a score card (1) for recording the results on each hole, and (2) which listed a random assignment of the order of putting style for each hole. Also, for two specific holes of 15 feet and 50 feet, the distance at which the balls stopped away from the cup was measured. An analysis of variance of mean total putting scores gave no significant difference between putting styles or between styles on the short and long distances to holes when first putts were measured. The traditional method of putting may not be the best technique for all beginning golfers; other methods such as using a long putter may be as effective.

Record 93 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Visual alignment considerations in golf putting consistency
AU: Coffey,-B; Mathison,-T; Viker,-M; Reichow,-A; Hogan,-C; Pelz,-D
SO: In, Cochran, A.J. (ed.), Science and golf: proceedings of the First World
Scientific Congress of Golf...London, E.&F.N. Spon, 1990, p. 76-80
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (1st : 1990 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 94 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: A laser based putting alignment test
AU: McGlynn,-F.-G; Jones,-R; Kerwin,-D.-G
SO: In, Cochran, A.J. (ed.), Science and golf: proceedings of the First World
Scientific Congress of Golf...London, E.&F.N. Spon, 1990, p. 70-75
CN: World Scientific Congress of Golf (1st : 1990 : St. Andrews, Scotland).

Record 95 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: A cure for the yips : a case study
AU: Blundell,-N
JN: Golf-in-Victoria-(Melbourne, Aust.) 31(9), Nov 1990, 11-14; 23

Record 96 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Putting: the key to good scoring
AU: Grady,-W
JN: Australian-golf-digest-(Sydney, Aust.), Oct 1990, 38-41

Record 97 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: The long putter technique : a word of caution
JN: Australian-golf-digest-(Sydney, Aust.), Feb 1990, 32-33

Record 98 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: The effects of ball color and cup liner color on putting performance across three different ability levels of men and women golfers with established handicaps
AU: Hardwick,-S.-J
SO: Microform Publications, College of Human Development and Performance, University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore, 1990, 2 microfiches (156 fr.) : negative; 11 x 15 cm
NT: Thesis (Ed.D.) - University of Northern Colorado, 1987; vita; includes bibliography (l. 134-140). Available from: Microform Publications, International Institute for Sport and Human Performance, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

Record 112 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Effects of a combination of stances and points of aim on putting accuracy
AU: Gott,-E; McGown,-C
JN: Perceptual-and-motor-skills-(Missoula, Mont.) 66(1), Feb 1988, 139-143 Refs:7
AB: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two putting stances (conventional versus side-saddle) and two points of aim (ball versus hole) on putting accuracy. Subjects (12 men, 4 women) were taught to putt using four methods: (a) conventional stance, eyes on the ball; (b) conventional stance, eyes on the hole; (c) side-saddle stance, eyes on the ball; and (d) side-saddle stance, eyes on the hole. Each subject practiced each method for 2 wk., after which they were tested for putting acuracy by counting putts made, determining constant error, and by calculating variable error. Accuracy was assessed at 5 and 15 ft. A 2 by 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that there was no single combination of stance and point of aim that was significantly better than another at either distance. This suggests that, contrary to popular opinion, the traditional method of putting is not the best for putting; other methods are equally as good and could be used if individually desired.

Record 118 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: What research tells the golf coach about putting
AU: Kraft,-R.-E
JN: Scholastic-coach-(New York) 55(6), Jan 1986, 110-113;117

Record 119 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Vector putting: the art and science of reading greens and computing break
AU: Templeton,-H.-A
SO: Vector Golf, Fort Worth, Tex, c1984, 194 p. : ill

Record 120 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Focus of attention and putting performance
AU: Boutcher,-S.-H; Crews,-D.-J
SO: Computer Microfilm International, Alexandria, Va, 1984, 1 microfiche (10 fr.)
CN: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Convention (1984 : Anaheim, Calif.).
PY: 1984

Record 134 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Theoretical analysis of aggressive golf putts
AU: Mahoney,-J.-F
JN: Research-quarterly-for-exercise-and-sport-53(2), Jun 1982, 165-171
AB: This paper develops a method of rating golf putts which fall into the category defined as aggressive. In executing an aggressive putt the golfer pays no attention to the possible consequences of missing. Formulas for the computation of error in unsuccessful putts are presented. The probability of success of an aggressive putt is heightened when the attempt is downhill and the green is fast.

Record 227 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Analysis of factors common to most successful putting styles in golf
AU: Cowles,-J.-H
SO: Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, Ore, 1975, 2 fiches. 10 x 15 cm
NT: Microfiche (neg.) of typescript. Thesis (M.S.) - Univ. of Wisconsin, 1974. 184 l. illus. 29 cm. Appendix E (l. 137-181) was not included in microfiche edition. Bibliography: l.183-184. Available from: Microform Publications, International Institute for Sport and Human Performance, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

Record 231 of 232 in SPORT Discus 1830-2001/07
TI: Comparison of golf putting techniques for beginning women golfers
AU: Hodge,-M.-T
SO: Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, Ore, 1969, 3 fiches. 7 x 12 cm
NT: Microfiche (neg.) of typescript. Thesis (M.S.) - Univ. of Wyoming. 80
l. illus. 29 cm. Bibliography: l.58-60. Available from: Microform
Publications, International Institute for Sport and Human Performance,
University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

PSYCH INFO DATABASE
Citations to Putting Science Studies

Date: Tuesday, November 20, 2001 10:55 AM
Subject: Psych Info golf putting 23 records

Records
Search History
* #1 (golf and putting) in DE,SU (23 Records)

Record 1 of 23 in PsycINFO Weekly 2001/11 Week 2

TI: The implicit benefit of learning without errors.
AU: Maxwell,-J-P; Masters,-R-S-W; Kerr,-E; Weedon,-E
EM: Maxwell,-J-P: jonathan.maxwell@port.ac.uk
AF: U Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
SO: Quarterly-Journal-of-Experimental-Psychology :
-Human-Experimental-Psychology. 2001 Nov; Vol 54A(4): 1049-1068
JN: Quarterly-Journal-of-Experimental-Psychology
:
-Human-Experimental-Psychology
PB: England: Taylor and Francis/Psychology Press.
URL: http://lucia.catchword.com/vl=94410964/cl=46/nw=1/
rpsv/catchword/psych/02724987/v54n4/contp1-1.htm
AB: Two studies examined whether the number of errors made in learning a motor skill, golf putting, differentially influences the adoption of a selective (explicit) or unselective (implicit) learning mode. Errorful learners were expected to adopt an explicit, hypothesis-testing strategy to correct errors during learning, characteristic of a selective mode of learning. Reducing errors during learning was predicted to minimize the involvement of explicit hypothesis testing leading to the adoption of an unselective mode of learning. 84 undergraduate students (aged 18-34 yrs) participated. Results supported these predictions. The golf putting performance of errorless learners in both studies was unaffected by the imposition of a secondary task load, whereas the performance of errorful learners deteriorated. Reducing errors during learning limited the number of error-correcting hypotheses tested by the learner, thereby reducing the contribution of explicit processing to skill acquisition. It was concluded that the reduction of errors during learning encourages the use of implicit, unselective learning processes. (PsycINFO Databas Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 2 of 23 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/10

TI: Can the Five-Step Strategy enhance the learning of motor skills in older adults.
AU: Steinberg,-Gregg-M; Glass,-Becky
AF: Austin Peay State U, Health and Human Performance Dept, Clarksville, TN, US
SO: Journal-of-Aging-and-Physical-Activity. 2001 Jan; Vol 9(1): 1-10
JN: Journal-of-Aging-and-Physical-Activity
PB: US: Human Kinetics.
URLP: www.humankinetics.com
AB: Examined the effectiveness of the Five-Step Strategy (FSS) as an instructional strategy for older adults and its effect on anxiety. The FSS consists of: (1) readying oneself, (2) imaging the desired outcome, (3) focusing on the task at hand, (4) freeing the mind, and (5) evaluating the outcome afterward. Ss were 30 men and women (mean age 65 yrs). One group used the FSS when learning a golf putt; a 2nd learned the putt without using the FSS. Ss putted for 3 1-hr sessions once a week. Performance and anxiety were assessed before the 1st and after the 2nd and 3rd sessions. Retention scores reveal that the FSS group learned the task better than the control group did. These findings suggest that the FSS might help older adults learn motor skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
CC: 2860-Gerontology; 3700-Sport-Psychology-and-Leisure; 2860; 3700; 28; 37

Record 3 of 23 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/10

TI: Temporal control of impact movement: The time from departure control hypothesis in golf putting.
AU: Coello,-Yann; Delay,-Delphine; Nougier,-Vincent; Orliaguet,-Jean-Pierre
AF: U "Charles de Gaulle", Unite de Recherche sur l'Evolution des Comportements et l'Apprentissage, Lille, France
SO: International-Journal-of-Sport-Psychology. 2000 Jan-Mar; Vol 31(1): 24-46
JN: International-Journal-of-Sport-Psychology
PB: Italy: Edizioni Luigi Pozzi.
AB: Anticipation-coincidence tasks have been widely studied in order to better understand the coupling between perceptual information and motor action. Based on D. N. Lee's (1976) original time-to-contact theory, the present study analyzed the temporal control of golf putting. Though the conventional tau theory had difficulties in accounting for the visual control of accelerating movement, it was suggested here that the temporal control of impact can be achieved on the basis of an optical variable: tau-sub(departure). The time from departure control hypothesis suggests that the starting position rather than the final position, plays a crucial role in the on-line visual control of golf putting. In order to test the tau-sub(departure ) hypothesis, a kinematic analysis of downswing was carried out with 5 Ss (mean age 25) when vision of the club was either allowed or occluded during movement execution. Results agreed quite well with the theoretical predictions and it was concluded that the time from departure control strategy might account for visually guided accelerating movements in golf putting and other striking skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 4 of 23 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/10

TI: Guiding the swing in golf putting.
AU: Craig,-C-M; Delay,-D; Grealy,-M-A; Lee,-D-N
AF: U de la Mediterranee, UMR Mouvement and Perception, Marseilles, France
SO: Nature. 2000 May; Vol 405(6784): 295-296
JN: Nature
PB: US: Nature Publishing Group.
URLP: www.nature.com
AB: Examined how control of impact is achieved through perceptual regulation of the impact in golf putting. 10 professional golfers' swings were measured. The model developed considers the role of information gathered through the senses plays in guiding actions and the control processes used by the nervous system to solve the guidance problems. The authors suggest that this model predicts how golfers regulate the forward swing in order to transmit the appropriate amount of kinetic energy at ball impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 5 of 23 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/10

TI: The effect of a specific training program (laser device assisted) for golf putting aim on putting confidence.
AU: Winters,-Robert-Kent
AF: U Virginia, US
SO: Dissertation-Abstracts-International-Section-A:
-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences. 1999 Dec; Vol 60(6-A): 1910
AB: This study investigated the effects of a specific golf putting intervention (laser device assisted) on learning to aim a putterhead perpendicular to the target (hole) and how that intervention affected aiming and putting confidence. A multiple baseline across subjects design using staggered baselines was used to test the effects of the intervention on seven right-handed, adult male golfers. Four separate hypotheses were tested using measures of objective putting aim, putting aim confidence, putting performance confidence and overall putting confidence. Replication of positive results over objective measures for this group of participants were mixed, suggesting the intervention was effective for some of the participants over selected measures, but not as effective for others. Results for Hypothesis I showed that four golfers improved in measures of aiming accuracy and/or consistency, two for absolute error (AE), and two for variable error (VE), thus HI was partially supported. Only one golfer improved state putting aim Confidence for Hypothesis 2, which was therefore rejected. Results showed that for Hypothesis 3, no golfer exhibited positive increases in all three measures of trait putting confidence, putting performance confidence, and a pre-post measure of putting confidence, though two golfers did improve in two of the three confidence measures and provided minimal support for the hypothesis. Results for Hypothesis 4 showed that five of the seven golfers improved in the measure of putting performance accuracy either by increasing putting accuracy (reducing absolute error; AE) or by increasing putting consistency (reducing variable error; VE), thereby supporting H4. Social validation questionnaires and open-ended responses taken at the end of the experiment, revealed that the golfers felt that the intervention was beneficial to their feelings of increased confidence, improved their level of overall putting, and increased their ability to aim the putter correctly to their intended target. The golfers also stated that participation in the intervention led to a greater awareness and understanding of the process of putting and helped them become more consistent in putting aim and actual putting performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 6 of 23 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

TI: Differences between actual and imagined putting movements in golf: A chronometric analysis.
AU: Orliaguet,-Jean-Pierre; Coello,-Yann
AF: U Pierre Mendes France, Lab de Psychologie Experimentale, Grenoble, France
SO: International-Journal-of-Sport-Psychology. 1998 Apr-Jun; Vol 29(2): 157-169
JN: International-Journal-of-Sport-Psychology
PB: Italy: Edizioni Luigi Pozzi.
AB: Analyzed the timing of a short-duration movement, the putting movement in golf, carried out either actually or mentally. 12 Ss (aged 21-25 yrs) who had isochronic movements participated in the study. Half of the Ss were golfers and the other half were college students. Results show that in actual movement, amplitude increased as a function of target distance whereas movement time remained stable over different target distances (principle of isochrony). By contrast, the results were clearly different in imagined movement condition. Duration of imagined movement was higher than duration of actual movement and increased as a function of target distance. Results suggest the absence of a temporal equivalence between imagined and actual movement for short-duration performances. Imagined and actual movements seemed not to share the same temporal rules of production, at least those concerning the regulation of movement time as a function of movement amplitude. Overall, the results are discussed in relation with the specific influence of mental practice on short and long-duration movements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 7 of 23 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

TI: Movement control in golf putting.
AU: Delay,-Delphine; Nougier,-Vincent; Orliaguet,-Jean-Pierre; Coello,-Yann
AF: U Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France
SO: Human-Movement-Science. 1997 Oct; Vol 16(5): 597-619
PB: Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers BV.
AB: Examined how force is controlled for impact movements such as golf putting. 10 expert players (mean age 23 yrs) and 10 controls (mean age 26 yrs) executed a putt as accurately as possible, in order to reach a target distance of 1, 2, 3, or 4 m. Movements of the club were recorded at 200 Hz via a SELSPOT system. Results show that, in order to increase club velocity at the moment of contact with the ball with increasing distance of the target, Ss increased the downswing (DS) amplitude, maintaining DS movement time constant. The change in force required to reach the different distances seemed to rely on an adjustment of the magnitude of the motor command within the same time period. Furthermore, results show that the movement of putting consists primarily in specifying the amplitude of the backswing as a function of the distance of the target. This gives rise to a motor impulse originating the force-time function required for an adequate DS movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 8 of 23 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

TI: Investigation of the contextual interference effect in the manipulation of the motor parameter of over-all force.
AU: Goodwin,-Jeff-E; Meeuwsen,-Harry-J
AF: Eastern Michigan U, Dept of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, Ypsilanti, MI, US
SO: Perceptual-and-Motor-Skills. 1996 Dec; Vol 83(3, Pt 1): 735-743
AB: Examined the contextual interference effect when manipulating over-all force in a golf-putting task. 30 Undergraduate women were randomly assigned to a Random, Blocked-Random, or Blocked practice condition and practiced golf putting from distances of 2.43 m, 3.95 m, and 5.47 m during acquisition. Ss in the Random condition practiced trials in a quasirandom sequence and those in the Blocked-Random condition practiced trials initially in a blocked sequence with the remainder of the trials practiced in a quasirandom sequence. In the Blocked condition, Ss practiced trials in a blocked sequence. A 24-hr transfer test consisted of 30 trials with 10 trials each from 1.67 m, 3.19 m, and 6.23 m. Transfer scores supported the R. A. Magill and K. G. Hall (1990) hypothesis that, when task variations involve learning parameters of a generalized motor program, the benefit of random practice over blocked practice would not be found. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
KP: contextual interference, manipulation of force in golf-putting task, female college students

Record 9 of 23 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

TI: A comparison of the effectiveness of visual, verbal, and kinesthetic imagery on motor performance, as well as corresponding psychophysiological responses.
AU: Kim,-Jingu
AF: U Florida, US
SO: Dissertation-Abstracts-International:-Section-B:
-The-Sciences-and-Engineering. 1996 May; Vol 56(11-B): 6374
AB: The main purposes of this investigation were (1) to compare the relative effectiveness of verbal, visual, and kinesthetic imagery on achievement in a golf-putting task, and (2) to investigate whether different psychophysiological responses occur in specific locations of the brain with verbal, visual, or kinesthetic imagery during preperformance routines. Sixty subjects (male = 37, female = 23) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: (1) verbal imagery, (2) visual imagery, (3) kinesthetic imagery, (4) placebo, and (5) control condition. A golf-putting task was administered. Subjects performed 40 acquisition trials followed by 20 retention trials. Additionally, EEG activity was Recorded for 10 min for each subject during their respective preperformance routines. ANOVAs were performed on the various dependent measures. The AE (accuracy) analysis revealed that verbal and kinesthetic imagery groups achieved better performance accuracy than did the visual, placebo, and control groups in the acquisition phase as well as the retention phase. The AVE (variability) analyses indicated that subjects in the verbal imagery, visual imagery, kinesthetic imagery, and placebo condition displayed no differences in variability. However, the control condition lead to lesser performance consistency when compared to the other conditions. More importantly, the verbal imagery group demonstrated higher performance consistency than the visual imagery group during the retention phase. These findings suggested that different imagery techniques can influence the performance of a motor skill in different ways. As for EEG data, the FFT (wave magnitude) analyses revealed no magnitude differences for the alpha, beta, and beta II bands in the occipital, central, parietal, and temporal areas during visual imagery, verbal imagery, and kinesthetic imagery. These findings suggested two things. First, EEG measures may not distinguish among different imagery modalities, and second, there is a pos (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 10 of 23 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

TI: Streaks in skilled performance.
AU: Gilden,-David-L; Wilson,-Stephanie-Gray
AF: U Texas, Dept of Psychology, Austin, US
SO: Psychonomic-Bulletin-and-Review. 1995 Jun; Vol 2(2): 260-265
PB: US: Psychonomic Society, Inc.
AB: Investigated the occurrence of streaks in skilled performance in golfball putting and dart throwing, in 4 experiments studying each of these independently, and in an interleaved fashion. A total of 57 Ss repeated the set task for a predetermined number of trials. Data reveal that skilled performance in laboratory conditions is streaky. The tendency for outcome sequences to form streaks was greatest when the task difficulty was such that about half the trials were successful. Mixtures of the 2 activities were also streaky, even when periodic interruption made the individual components resemble a random Bernoulli process. Formal models of sequence structure reveal that waves in hit rate were associated with the appearance of streaks. There was a U-shaped function relating streak magnitude and hit rate. Results challenge the T. Gilovich et al (1985) claim that streaks are always an illusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)

Record 11 of 23 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

TI: Effects of varying imagery perspective and imagery time on performance of the putting stroke in golf.
AU: Hough,-Frederick-Fisher
AF: Temple U, US
SO: Dissertation-Abstracts-International-Section-A:
-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences. 1995 Jun; Vol 55(12-A): 3781
AB: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying imagery perspective and imagery time on performance of the putting stroke in golf. A series of audio tapes, developed for this research, served as the Psychological Skills Training Program (PSTP). Subjects in the experimental groups (n = 28) were from 3 introductory golf classes. The control group (n = 7) was from the general student population. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 7 subjects per group. The 4 groups were: the internal perspective 3-minute imagery group; the external perspective 3-minute imagery group: the internal perspective 7-minute imagery group; and the external perspective 7-minute imagery group. The three dependent variables were: 20 scores (10 pre and posttest) on putting trials; control of visual imagery measured by the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control (TVIC); and vividness of mental imagery measured by the Betts Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery Vividness (QUMIV). All groups were pre and posttested following an interval of a 6-week treatment period. All groups performed a putting activity once each week during the 6-week treatment period. The treatment subjects listened to audio tapes three times each week during the treatment period. The control group did not listen to the audio tapes. The following are conclusions based upon the hypotheses, statistical findings, limitations, and delimitations of the study: (1) The rejection of the null hypothesis of the treatment effects on Groups 2, 3, and 5 suggests that, for the 3- and 7-minute internal groups and the 7-minute external group, improvement in their putting ability is due to the treatment conditions. Group 4 (the 3-minute external group) did show improvement but not at a statistically significant level. (2) The rejection of the null hypotheses on the repeated measures pre and posttests for putting, TVIC, and QUMIV scores, for all groups including controls, suggests that improvement may have b (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 12 of 23 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

TI: The effects of imagery on the performance of a fine motor skill: Golf putting.
AU: Stevens,-Donald-Earl
AF: Spalding U, US
SO: Dissertation-Abstracts-International:-Section-B:
-The-Sciences-and-Engineering. 1995 Jun; Vol 55(12-B): 5555
AB: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of imagery on a fine motor skill: golf putting. Two research hypotheses were postulated for this project: (1) Individuals who experience imagery combined with practice will show more improvement in putting performance than those individuals who experience physical practice only. (2) Individuals who experience an imagery script that contains imagining a positive outcome will improve their putting performance to a greater degree than individuals who experience an imagery script that does not contain positive outcome or individuals who experience physical practice only. In addition, two research questions were posed: (1) Do high imagers appear to benefit from imagery more than low imagers? (2) To what degree did subjects manipulate their imagery scripts and did that manipulation affect putting performance? All subjects were from the Louisville, Kentucky, area which includes the surrounding Southern Indiana area. A total of 121 subjects participated in this research project, 77 females and 44 males. Previous research designs had included design limitations which included no imagery script manipulation checks, no measurement of subjects' imagery ability, poorly delineated imagery scripts and poorly defined performance measures. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups, three experimental groups and one control group to form matched groups on putting experience. The experimental design was a between groups design. The subjects were run through a five stage experimental design in maximum groups of four subjects. The five stages of the experimental design were a training session on the skill, putting a golf ball in a pretreatment measure, an imagery or physical practice control session, putting a golf ball in a post-treatment measure, and an imagery script manipulation check. The results were subject to parametric analysis using analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and Pearson Product Moment correlat (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Record 13 of 23 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

TI: Effects of occluded vision and imagery on putting golf balls.
AU: Meacci,-William-G; Pastore,-Donna-L
AF: Pennsylvania State U, Beaver Campus, Monaca, US
SO: Perceptual-and-Motor-Skills. 1995 Feb; Vol 80(1): 179-186
PB: US: Perceptual and Motor Skills.
AB: Examined the effects of combining occluded vision with imagery for acquiring and retaining golf-putting skill for 80 college students. Ss were divided among 4 groups according to learning method: visual contact and imagery, nonvisual contact and imagery, visual contact, and control. Findings indicate that Ss who registered for beginning golf classes were significantly higher in putting-skill acquisition using occluded vision and visual imagery than practicing while in visual contact with the ball and no imagery. Occluded-vision imagery was not superior to visual imagery for acquisition or retention of putting skill. In addition, the occluded-vision Ss showed positive transfer to visual putting skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
KP: occluded vision and imagery, golf putting skill, college students

Record 14 of 23 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

TI: "Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt": Comment.
AU: Shaw,-J-C
AF: Bishop Ottercollege, Human Movement Section, England
SO: Medicine-and-Science-in-Sports-and-Exercise. 1993 Sep; Vol 25(9): 1084
PB: US: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
URLP: http://www.lww.com
AB: Comments that the use of the terms "activity" and "activation" in the article by D. J. Crews and D. M. Landers (seeRecord 1993-24756-001) on EEG changes prior to the golf putt highlights an ambiguity in the use of this terminology. Confusion was generated in this case due to the reciprocal nature of the terms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)

Record 15 of 23 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

TI: "Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt": Response.
AU: Crews,-Debra-J; Landers,-Daniel-M
AF: U North Carolina, Greensboro, US
SO: Medicine-and-Science-in-Sports-and-Exercise. 1993 Sep; Vol 25(9): 1084-1085
PB: US: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
URLP: http://www.lww.com
AB: Replies to comments by J. C. Shaw (see Record 1994-12617-001) regarding the use of the terms "activity" and "activation" in the article by D. J. Crews and D. M. Landers (seeRecord 1993-24756-001). The authors defend their use of the terminology for examining EEG changes prior to the golf putt, and also endorse the recommendations made by Shaw. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)

Record 16 of 23 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

DT: Chapter
TI: Toward defining the role of gaze control in complex targetting skills.
AU: Vickers,-J-N
AF: U Calgary, Faculty of Physical Education, Neuro-Motor Psychology Lab, Calgary, AB, Canada
BK: Brogan, David (Ed); Gale, Alastair (Ed); et-al. (1993). Visual search, 2. (pp. 265-285). Philadelphia, PA, US: Taylor & Francis. xiii, 477 pp.SEE BOOK
IB: 0748400109 (hardcover)
AB: (from the chapter) a framework for exploring gaze control in targetting skills is presented in a study of four low handicap (0-8 high skilled) and four high handicap golfers (10-16) in putting / gaze was assessed using a mobile eye movement system as the S performed consecutive putts from 3 m / mean frequency and duration of gaze was analysed relative to the phase of the movement, gaze behaviour, gaze location, and outcome (hits versus misses) / [Ss were male (mean age 42.4 years)] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
KP: explores the role of gaze control in the complex targetting skill of golf putting

Record 17 of 23 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

TI: Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt.
AU: Crews,-Debra-J; Landers,-Daniel-M
AF: U North Carolina, Greensboro, US
SO: Medicine-and-Science-in-Sports-and-Exercise. 1993 Jan; Vol 25(1): 116-126
PB: US: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
URLP: http://www.lww.com
AB: Determined the attentional focus patterns associated with golf putting performance. 34 highly skilled golfers were assessed using electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of the motor and temporal cortices during the 3 sec prior to the golf putt. Ss completed 40 12-ft putts, and performance was measured in cm error from the hole. Three measures of EEG were analyzed (slow shift, 40 Hz, and relative power spectrum) representing readiness to respond, focused arousal, and general cortical activity, respectively. All 3 EEG measures suggested a decrease in left-hemisphere (HS) motor cortex activity as the player prepared to putt. Relative power measures also showed significant increases in right-HS activity in both the motor and temporal cortices. During the last second preceding the putt, increased right-HS alpha activity correlated with and predicted less error. HS differentiation was also reduced as Ss prepared to putt. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)

Record 18 of 23 in PsycINFO 1988-1991

TI: Retention of a linear task at a novel distance after practice at varied distances.
AU: Hautala,-Robert-M; Kidd,-Thomas
AF: U Nebraska, School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Omaha, US
SO: Perceptual-and-Motor-Skills. 1990 Dec; Vol 71(3, Pt 2): 1355-1358
PB: US: Perceptual and Motor Skills.
AB: 16 female and 26 male Ss (aged 19-49 yrs) practiced golf putting at different distances or combinations of distances. Analysis of test putts for varied and constant practice groups indicated a superiority of varied-practice Ss in adjusting on a later test trial. Males performed significantly better than females. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)

Record 19 of 23 in PsycINFO 1988-1991

TI: The influence of attentive states on golf putting as indicated by cardiac and electrocortical activity.
AU: Crews,-Debra-L
AF: Arizona State U, US
SO: Dissertation-Abstracts-International. 1990 Mar; Vol 50(9-B): 4269

Record 20 of 23 in PsycINFO 1988-1991

TI: Effects of a combination of stances and points of aim on putting accuracy.
AU: Gott,-Erich; McGown,-Carl
AF: Brigham Young U, US
SO: Perceptual-and-Motor-Skills. 1988 Feb; Vol 66(1): 139-143
PB: US: Perceptual and Motor Skills.
AB: Examined the accuracy of 2 putting stances (conventional vs side-saddle) and 2 points of aim (ball vs hole) on putting accuracy. 16 undergraduates were taught to putt using 4 methods and practiced each method for 2 wks. Ss' putting accuracy was assessed at 5 and 15 ft. Analyses show that no combination of stance and aim was significantly more accurate at either distance. It is concluded that the traditional method of putting is not necessarily the best method for putting; other methods are equally as good and should be used if individually desired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)

Record 21 of 23 in PsycINFO 1984-1987

TI: The use of self-modeling to improve motor performance.
AU: Drazin,-David-M
AF: California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego
SO: Dissertation-Abstracts-International. 1985 Sep; Vol 46(3-B): 946

Record 22 of 23 in PsycINFO 1984-1987

TI: Effects of skill level and sensory information on golf putting.
AU: Wannebo,-Matthew; Reeve,-T-Gilmour
AF: Auburn U
SO: Perceptual-and-Motor-Skills. 1984 Apr; Vol 58(2): 611-613
PB: US: Perceptual and Motor Skills.
AB: 22 male undergraduates were classified as high or low in skill with regard to golf-putting performance and putted from 2 distances (5 ft, 15 ft) under 3 different conditions to determine the role of sensory information in golf-putting. The 3 conditions were relevant visual cues (look at ball), no visual cues (blindfolded), and irrelevant visual cues (look at offset marker). ANOVA with radial error as the dependent variable indicated significant main effects for each factor but no significant interactions. Relevant visual cues provided greater accuracy than did no visual cues or irrelevant visual cues. It is suggested that golfers develop a reliance on visual cues early in their skill acquisition. (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)

Record 23 of 23 in PsycINFO 1967-1976

TI: Variables influencing "lining up the shot" in golf putting.
AU: Sidowski,-Joseph-B; Carter,-Kenneth; O'-Brien,-Timothy
AF: U. South Florida
SO: Perceptual-and-Motor-Skills. 1973 Aug; Vol. 37(1): 39-44
PB: US: Perceptual and Motor Skills.

UNIVERSITY MICROFILM DISSERTATIONS
Citations to Putting Science Dissertations

N.B.: The first citation you click on, UMI will demand a "cookie" and will not display the info. Give UMI the answer to two questions (what continent do you live on, and are you affiliated with a university) and then close that 1st window. Then click the citation a 2nd time and you get the info. All other clicks then work fine.

A-J

 
Afremow
Negative imagery and performance: Searching for biasing effects and a cognitive intervention strategy (golf) AUTHOR Afremow, James A.
 
Alford
MOTOR SKILL PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF IMAGERY PERSPECTIVE: A PRACTICAL EVALUATION (MENTAL IMAGERY) AUTHOR   ALFORD, LAWRENCE ROBERT
full swing
Barr
KINETIC INFORMATION FEEDBACK IN THE ACQUISITION OF A COMPLEX MOTOR SKILL AUTHOR   BARR, MICHELE LYN
 
Bartlett
AN IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS (IPA) OF THE DESIGN FEATURES OF AN OUTDOOR GOLF PRACTICE FACILITY AUTHOR   BARTLETT, PAUL ARTHUR
 
Beauchamp
An examination of pre-performance imagery use by high and low performers from golf and tennis AUTHOR   Beauchamp, Mark Robert

Beauchamp
PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON GOLFERS' PUTTING PERFORMANCE (SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, MENTAL EXCELLENCE) AUTHOR   BEAUCHAMP, PIERRE H.
 
Bingham
THE EFFECT OF SCHEDULE OF KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE ON LEARNING A SELF-PACED MOTOR SKILL (THE GOLF PUTT) BY OLDER ADULTS AUTHOR   BINGHAM, SARAH MASON
 
Bouchard
The effects of a cognitive and somatic awareness intervention on competitive golf performance and emotion regulation AUTHOR   Bouchard, Lester Joseph
 
Bowen
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF GOLF PUTTING USING BEGINNING GOLFERS AUTHOR   BOWEN, ROBERT THOMPSON, JR
 
Campbell
APPLICATION OF OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY TO HUMAN MOVEMENT PROBLEMS: THE GOLF SWING AUTHOR   CAMPBELL, KEVIN ROBERT
 
Chamblee
MOTOR SKILL LEARNING WITH PATTERN AND ERROR CORRECTION FEEDBACK AUTHOR   CHAMBLEE, MARIE BROOKS
 
Christensen
Self-efficacy, cognitive interference, sport anxiety, and psychological coping skills as predictors of performance in intercollegiate golf AUTHOR   Christensen, Donald Steven
 
Cirino
COLLISION DYNAMICS OF A ROUGH DEFORMABLE SPHERE AND ITS SUBSEQUENT TRAJECTORY IN AIR AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBER AUTHOR   CIRINO, MATTHEW JOSEPH
 
Clark
SELF-PERCEIVED SEX ROLE AND FEMALE INVOLVEMENT IN SPORT AUTHOR   CLARK, ELIZABETH KINSLEY
 

Cohn
THE EFFECTS OF SELF-MONITORING PRESHOT BEHAVIORS ON PRESHOT ROUTINES AND PERFORMANCE IN GOLF AUTHOR COHN, PATRICK JOHN
 
Cook
QUANTIFICATION OF THE 'YIPS' PHENOMENON DURING GOLF PUTTING (ELECTROMYOGRAPH, MUSCLE TENSION) AUTHOR   COOK, SHERYL GLENN
 
Courtney
GOLF PERFORMANCE: THINKING, IMAGING, AND DOING AUTHOR   COURTNEY, JAMES EDWARD
 
Cremades
The effects of imagery perspective as a function of skill level on alpha activity AUTHOR   Cremades, Juan Gualberto
putting
 
Crews
THE INFLUENCE OF ATTENTIVE STATES ON GOLF PUTTING AS INDICATED BY CARDIAC AND ELECTROCORTICAL ACTIVITY AUTHOR   CREWS, DEBRA LINDSAY

Cullen
THE EFFECT OF UNEVEN TERRAIN ON THE GOLF STROKE AUTHOR   CULLEN, FLORENCE PATRICIA

Curtis
A COMPARISON OF FLOODING AND VISUAL MOTOR BEHAVIOR REHEARSAL IN IMPROVING PITCHING PERFORMANCE AUTHOR   CURTIS, DAVID GARRET
O'Brien, pitching

Damarjian
The short-term training effects of practice variability on posttraining performance of three golf skills with experienced golfers AUTHOR   Damarjian, Nicole Marie
Christina, putting chipping pitching

Deschryver
EFFECTS OF CHAINING-MASTERY INSTRUCTION, ANXIETY MANAGEMENT TRAINING, AND BIBLIOTHERAPY ON GOLF PERFORMANCE AUTHOR   DESCHRYVER, MONICA AUGUSTINE

Drazin
THE USE OF SELF-MODELING TO IMPROVE MOTOR PERFORMANCE (GOLF) AUTHOR   DRAZIN, DAVID MORTON
putting

Ettenger
THE EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK ON COMPETITIVE ANXIETY AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE AUTHOR   ETTENGER, ROY HOWARD
putting
 
Feinn
The randomness of streaks in sports AUTHOR   Feinn, Richard Stephen
 
Fernandez
THE EFFECTS OF VISUAL IMAGERY AND MODELING ON A SIMPLE MOTOR SKILL AUTHOR   FERNANDEZ, SALVADOR, JR.
putting

Frehlich
Quiet eye duration as an index of cognitive processing: The effect of task complexity and task duration on visual search patterns and performance in highly-skilled and lesser-skilled billiards players AUTHOR   Frehlich, Shane Gary
Singer, considers Vickers 1996 theory suppression-location

Glore
THE EVALUATION OF A PROGRAM FOR THE TEACHING OF ESSENTIAL MENTAL SKILLS IN SPORT AUTHOR   GLORE, CHARLES FOSTER, III
 
Gnagy
Comparison of a three-step task-specific learning strategy: Singer's Five-Step Learning Strategy, and a control strategy in learning and performance of a golf putting task AUTHOR Gnagy, Erik O., II

Goodall
Automated tracking of the golf putt: An analysis of low-handicap golfers and feedback for novice golfers AUTHOR Goodall, Chad Robert
putting

Goodwin
BANDWIDTH KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS IN MOTOR SKILL PERFORMANCE AND LEARNING (GOLF) AUTHOR   GOODWIN, JEFFERY EARL
putting
 
Grevlos
A comparison of the practice and skill training conditions of expert and intermediate female golfers AUTHOR   Grevlos, Mike Christen
 
Griffiths
A CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GOLF STROKES AUTHOR   GRIFFITHS, ANNE MARIE
 
Haake
APPARATUS AND TEST METHODS FOR MEASURING THE IMPACT OF GOLF BALLS ON TURF AND THEIR APPLICATION IN THE FIELD AUTHOR   HAAKE, STEPHEN JOHN
 
Haltom
CONTROL STRUCTURE ORGANIZATION IN A SIMPLE GOLF SKILL AUTHOR   HALTOM, STEPHEN BRANDON
putting neurology
 
Hand
THE ROLE OF PRE-RESPONSE AND POST-RESPONSE AUGMENTED LEARNING VARIABLES IN MOTOR SKILL ACQUISITION AUTHOR   HAND, M. JEROME
whiffle ball hitting into a circle
 
Hauge
Thought suppression and balance skill performance AUTHOR   Hauge, Linnea Susan
 
Hough
EFFECTS OF VARYING IMAGERY PERSPECTIVE AND IMAGERY TIME ON PERFORMANCE OF THE PUTTING STROKE IN GOLF AUTHOR   HOUGH, FREDERICK FISHER
putting
 
Hubalik
STRESS AND CATECHOLAMINE EXCRETION IN INTERCOLLEGIATE GOLFERS: A TEST OF THE AROUSAL/PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP AUTHOR   HUBALIK, NICHOLAS EDWARD
ASU
 
Hunley
THE IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE STRESSORS OF COMPETITION AS PERCEIVED BY PROFESSIONAL FEMALE GOLFERS AUTHOR   HUNLEY, PHYLLIS JEANNE HAMBURG

Jackson
ELITE ATHLETES IN FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL SPORT EXPERIENCE (ATHLETES) AUTHOR JACKSON, SUSAN AMANDA

Gould
Jan
MOVEMENTS OF A SPHERE MOVING OVER SMOOTH AND ROUGH INCLINES (DRAG COEFFICIENT, SLIDING FRICTION, ROLLING RESISTANCE) AUTHOR JAN, CHYAN-DENG
 
Jennings
THE DIFFERENCES IN THE VARIABLES OF ATTENTION, ANXIETY AND MENTAL IMAGERY IN GOLF AND TENNIS PLAYERS AUTHOR   JENNINGS, LAWRENCE MICHAEL
tennis better focus ability than golfers
 
Johnson
Personality factors underlying 'choking' in sports AUTHOR   Johnson, Michael John

Johnston
THE INSTRUCTIONAL USE OF VIDEOTAPE: MAKING 'A GOOD THING' BETTER; THE EFFECTS OF SELF-MONITORING PROGRAMS AND VIDEOTAPE FEEDBACK ON PERFORMANCE, SUCCESS AND FAILURE ATTRIBUTIONS, AND MOTIVATION AUTHOR   JOHNSTON, ELIZABETH JANE

Jordan
THE RESULTS OF SPEED AND ACCURACY EMPHASES ON THE LEARNING OF A SELECTED MOTOR SKILL IN GOLF AUTHOR   JORDAN, WILLIAM LEE

K-Z

Kim
A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VISUAL, VERBAL, AND KINESTHETIC IMAGERY ON MOTOR PERFORMANCE, AS WELL AS CORRESPONDING PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AUTHOR KIM, JINGU
Singer, putting
 
King
THE EFFECTS OF VISUAL PERSPECTIVE, BALL POSITION AND DISTANCE ON THE ACCURACY OF A PUTTED BALL IN GOLF AUTHOR   KING, STEPHEN
putting
 
Ko
Influence of two attentional strategies on performance, quiet eye duration, and competitive anxiety in an underhand dart tossing task AUTHOR   Ko, Wisug
Singer, considers Vickers 1996 suppression-location theory
 
 
 
Kornblath
A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO STRESS MANAGEMENT WITH GOLFERS (INOCULATION, SPORTS) AUTHOR   KORNBLATH, RICHARD
range driver shots
 
Kornspan
THE EFFECTS OF PREPERFORMANCE IMAGERY AND PREPERFORMANCE POSITIVE AFFIRMATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A GOLF PUTTING TASK AUTHOR   KORNSPAN, ALAN S.
putting
 
 
Krane
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE: A TEST OF THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANXIETY AND CATASTROPHE THEORIES (MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANXIETY THEORY, CATASTROPHE THEORY) AUTHOR KRANE, VICTORIA IVY
Gould
Kras
A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF SELECTED HEALTH-RELATED AND PERFORMANCE-RELATED PHYSICAL FITNESS OF GOLFERS ON GOLF SCORES AUTHOR   KRAS, JOHN MICHAEL

Larson
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GOLF PUTTING TEST AUTHOR LARSON, LEA A.
putting

Lee
Learning reduced-dimension models of human actions AUTHOR   Lee, Christopher Harold
 
Malo
Golfers' preperformance states of mind and emotion during tournament play AUTHOR   Malo, Susan A.
Orlick, psych
 
Mayer
An investigation of cognitive-affective stress management training with golfers AUTHOR   Mayer, William Franz
 
Milburn
APPLICATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PERFORMANCE AS FEEDBACK DURING SKILL ACQUISITION AUTHOR   MILBURN, PETER DAVID
full swing
 
Mueller
GOAL SETTING AND SELF-EFFICACY IN MOTOR PERFORMANCE: A TEST OF LOCKE AND LATHAM'S MODEL (EDWIN A. LOCKE, GARY LATHAM) AUTHOR   MUELLER, KIRK HAHN
putting
 
 
Newton
A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY MODEL FOR INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT (HYPNOSIS) AUTHOR NEWTON, NATALIE HOPE
 
Nyhus
THE EFFECT OF THE ALPHA CHAMBER AS A MEDIUM FOR MODELING GOLF PERFORMANCE (VIDEO) AUTHOR   NYHUS, SUSAN BILLEK

Oh
Flow in golf: Motivation, goal orientation, and challenge determinant AUTHOR   Oh, Sei-Yi

Pettigrew
THE PHYSICAL SKILLS ACHIEVEMENT EFFECTS OF AN ECLECTIC APPROACH IN INSTRUCTION WHEN IMPLEMENTED IN LIEU OF THE PREFERRED STYLE AUTHOR   PETTIGREW, FRANK EDWIN, JR.

Petruzzello
AN EXAMINATION OF PROPOSED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR EXERCISE-RELATED REDUCTIONS IN ANXIETY (EEG, BODY TEMPERATURE, MOOD CHANGES) AUTHOR   PETRUZZELLO, STEVEN JOSEPH
Landers

Pickens
THE ACQUISITION OF PUTTING CONFIDENCE: A CASE STUDY (GOLF) AUTHOR   PICKENS, MORRIS MCCULLOUGH
putting
 
Piparo
CHRONIC EFFECTS OF FITNESS ON THE GOLF PUTT AUTHOR   PIPARO, ANTHONY JOHN
Gill, putting
 
Progen
AN EXPLORATION OF THE FLOW EXPERIENCE AMONG SELECTED COLLEGIATE ATHLETES AUTHOR   PROGEN, JANICE LEE
UNCG

Radlo
TITLE   The effectiveness of Singer's Five-Step Strategy during a competitive situation: A behavioral and psychophysiological investigation AUTHOR   Radlo, Steven J.
Singer, EEG underhand dart throw (includes 40 Hz)

Roberson
An analysis of the effect of a culturally sensitive instructional golf program on golf skill acquisition and indicators of psychological development among selected African American youth AUTHOR Roberson, Venita

Rondeau
A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF GOLF PUTTERS ON THE BASIS OF SELECTED IMPACT MEASUREMENTS AUTHOR   RONDEAU, KENNETH GILLES
putting, equipment tests

Salazar
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ATTENTION IN THE PREPARATORY STAGE OF A LEG AND FINGER REACTION TIME TASK: A CHRONOMETRIC APPROACH (LEG REACTION, FINGER REACTION, HEART RATE, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM) AUTHOR   SALAZAR, WALTER
Landers

Salter
THE EFFECTS OF THREE DISPARATE INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES ON SKILL ATTEMPTS AND STUDENT LEARNING IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TEACHING UNIT AUTHOR   SALTER, WALLACE B., JR.

Segal
The effects of nature-oriented and non-nature-oriented guided imagery content on relaxation AUTHOR   Segal, Peter Scott
O'Brien
 
Shaffery
Effects of imaginal flooding on golf putting performance AUTHOR   Shaffery, Joseph Peter
O'Brien, putting, anxiety

Sidaway
PROGRAMMING TIME AS A FUNCTION OF THE ACCURACY DEMAND AND NUMBER OF MOVEMENT PARTS OF A RAPID RESPONSE AUTHOR   SIDAWAY, BEN
Christina

Steinberg
The effect of different goal strategies on achievement-related cognitions, affect, and behavior during learning of a golf putt AUTHOR   Steinberg, Gregg Myles
Singer, putting

Stevens
THE EFFECTS OF IMAGERY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A FINE MOTOR SKILL: GOLF PUTTING AUTHOR   STEVENS, DONALD EARL
putting
 
Stringer
L'INFLUENCE DE LA PRATIQUE DE L'IMAGERIE MENTALE SUR L'ANXIETE, L'EFFICACITE PERSONNELLE, ET LA PERFORMANCE AU COUP ROULE EN GOLF (FRENCH TEXT) AUTHOR   STRINGER, HENRI-ALBERT
putting imagery
 
Sundberg
Timed vs. untimed initiation intervals and the effects of confidence on a golf putting task AUTHOR   Sundberg, Jeffrey D.
putting
 
Sutlive
EFFECT OF PRACTICE SCHEDULE VARIATION ON THE ACQUISITION, RETENTION, AND TRANSFER OF AN APPLIED MOTOR SKILL BY CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT MILD MENTAL RETARDATION AUTHOR   SUTLIVE, VINSON H., III
putting
 
Taylor
STIMULUS CUEING VERSUS VISUALIZATION IN TENNIS AUTHOR   TAYLOR, STEPHEN SCOTT
O'Brien

Thompson
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF GOLF PUTTING USING BEGINNING GOLFERS AUTHOR   BOWEN, ROBERT THOMPSON, JR

Toogood
A comparison of a multi-component behavioral package and a self-directed manual for teaching a sport skill AUTHOR   Toogood, Shirley Adrienne

Truter
THE EFFECT OF POSTHYPNOTIC SUGGESTIONS ON SPORT PERFORMANCES: AN INTERACTIONAL APPROACH AUTHOR   TRUTER, JACOBUS FRANCOIS

 
Turnbull
A comparison between correct practice and error practice in teaching novice golf AUTHOR   Turnbull, Robert Valcour
 
Wagner
SPORTS ANXIETY REDUCTION TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE GOLF PERFORMANCE AUTHOR   WAGNER, DENNIS BRUCE
 
Walford
PROPRIOCEPTIVE AND VISUAL FEEDBACK IN GOLF SKILL ACQUISITION AUTHOR   WALFORD, GERALD ALBERT
pitching and putting
 
Walker
Effects of strategy and fatigue on golf performance and competitive anxiety in amateur golfers AUTHOR   Walker, Eddie Gene, II
catastrophe theory (arousal + anxiety)
 
Walton
CLOSE-RANGE CINE-PHOTOGRAMMETRY: A GENERALIZED TECHNIQUE FOR QUANTIFYING GROSS HUMAN MOTION AUTHOR   WALTON, JAMES STEPHEN
 
Whitchard
THE VALIDATION OF THE GOLF TEST OF ATTENTIONAL STYLE (ATTENTIONAL STYLE) AUTHOR   WHITCHARD, KIMBERLY ANN
 
Winters
The effect of a specific training program (laser device assisted) for golf putting aim on putting confidence AUTHOR   Winters, Robert Kent
putting
 
Wiren
HUMAN FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GOLF DRIVE FOR DISTANCE AUTHOR WIREN, GARY

Young
Psychological factors and the NCAA Division I golfer by Young, Laura Ellen

Zafiroglu
THE CONTROL OF FORCE-TIME VARIABILITY IN SEQUENTIAL LIMB MOVEMENTS AUTHOR   ZAFIROGLU, NICOLAS CARL
putting

Zinsser
THE EFFECTS OF A COGNITIVE INTERVENTION AND PERCEIVED VALUE ON ADHERENCE TO IMAGERY PRACTICE (SPORT PSYCHOLOGY) AUTHOR   ZINSSER, NATHANIEL WADSWORTH
Rotella

Volume 1

Issue 1 Principles of Training [Endurance Training, Sprint Training, Recovery, General] December, 1995

Issue 2 Specificity of Training [Cross-training, Testing, Training Specificity] January, 1996

Issue 3 Overload and Overtraining [Training Overload, Overtraining] February, 1996

Issue 4 Positive Mental Activity [Basic Research, Self-talk, Coach's Influence, Positive Thinking, Suggested Reading] March, 1996

Issue 5 Measuring Practice Effort [Heart Rates, Perceptions of Effort, Lactate, Thresholds] April, 1996

Volume 2

Issue 1 Strength Training [Theoretical Bases, Specificity, General, Strength and Endurance, Testing, Suggested Reading] September, 1996

Issue 2 Goal-setting [Group goals, Types of Goals, Research, Uses, Effects, Suggested Readings] October, 1996

Issue 3 Fuel and Ergogenic Aids [General Mechanisms, Carbohydrates, Amino Acids, Sodium Bicarbonate, Other Substances, Hydration and Electrolyte Replacement, Vitamins and Oxidants, Creatine, Nasal Dilators] November, 1996

Issue 4 Altitude Training [Altitude Adaptation, Altitude and Performance, Live High--Train Low, Summary] December, 1996

Issue 5 The Female Athlete [Female Studies, Physiological Characteristics, Training Responses, Performance Factors, Psychology] February, 1997

Issue 6 Imagery in Sports [Imagery Concepts and Research, Applied Research, Athletes' Statements, Procedures for Covert Behavior Modification, Research Difficulties, Suggested Readings] April, 1997

Volume 3

Issue 1 Learning in Sports [Nature of Skill Learning, Content of Instruction, Instructional Styles, Forward Shaping, Backward Shaping, Teaching General Behavior Control] September, 1997

Issue 2 The Young Athlete [Children, Adolescents, Growth, Application Criteria] October, 1997

Issue 3 Psychological Activity in Sport [Cognitive Activity, Arousal, Anxiety, Stress, Measuring Psychological Activity] November, 1997

Issue 4 Individual Differences [Individuality, Talent Differences, Testing for Physical Capacities] February, 1998

Issue 5 Psychological Dynamics of Performance [Team Building, Strategies, Psyching-up, Psychological Skills Training, Competition thinking] March, 1998

Issue 6 Temperature and Performance [General, Adaptation, Dynamics of Temperature Adaptation, Dehydration and Rehydration] April, 1998

Volume 4

Issue 1 Principles of Training 2 [Endurance Training, Sprint Training, Recovery, General] September, 1998

Issue 2 Specificity of Training 2 [Cross-training, Testing, Training Specificity] October, 1998

Issue 3 Overload and Overtraining 2 [Training Overload, Overtraining] November, 1998

Issue 4 Warm-up, Recovery, and Rates of Movement [Warm-up, Rest and Recovery, Rates and Rhythms of Movement] February, 1999

Issue 5 Measuring Practice Effort 2.1 [Rating of Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate, Measurement Tools] March, 1999

Issue 6 Measuring Practice Effort 2.2 [Lactate Dynamics, Lactate and Training, Lactate/anaerobic Threshold] April, 1999

Volume 5

Issue 1 Strength Training 2 [Specificity, General, Strength, Testing] September, 1999

Issue 2 Fuel and Ergogenic Aids 2.1 - Creatine [General Theory; Strength, Power, and Size, Anaerobic Work, Repeated Anaerobic Work; Aerobic work] October, 1999

Issue 3 Fuel and Ergogenic Aids 2.2 - General [General; Carbohydrates; Caffeine; Other Substances; Nasal Dilators; Other Ergogenic Aids] November, 1999

Issue 4 Altitude Training 2 [Altitude Adaptation; Altitude and Performance; Live High -- Train Low; Live Contrived -- Train Low; General] February, 2000

Issue 5 The Female Athlete 2 [Performance, Physiology, Training, Psychology] March, 2000

Issue 6 Drugs in Sport [General, Steroids, HGH, EPO, Other Drugs] April, 2000

Volume 6

Issue 1 Coaching Factors [Coaching Actions, Coaching Descriptions, Parents in Sport, Coaching Science Terminology] September, 2000

Issue 2 Imagery in Sports 2 [Imagery Concepts and Research, Applied Research Using Imagery] October, 2000

Issue 3 Psychological Activity in Sport 2 [Positive Thinking, Goal-setting, Strategies] November, 2000

Issue 4 Mental Factors in Sports [Attention; Arousal, Anxiety, and Stress; Mental Skills; Learning and Pratice Skills; Achievement; Attitude and Mood States; Measurement] February, 2001

Issue 5 Fatigue in Exercise [General; Factors Involved; Specific Effects] March, 2001

Issue 6 The Young Athlete 2 [Children; Adolescents; Children and Adolescents] April, 2001

Volume 7

Issue 1 Principles of Training 3 [General, Sprint Training, Endurance Training, Ultra-short Training, Warm-up, Recovery, Taper] September, 2001

Issue 2 Temperature and Performance 2 [General, Adaptation, Dynamics of Temperature Adaptation, Dehydration and Rehydration] October, 2001

Issue 3 Specificity of Training 3 [General, Transfer Failures, Transfer Successes, Applications] November, 2001

Issue 4 Overload and Overtraining 3 [Overload Features, Overload Applications, Overtraining Symptoms and Effects] February, 2002

Issue 5 Measuring Practice Effort 3.1 [Rating of Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate, Pain] March, 2002

Issue 6 Measuring Practice Effort 3.2 [Lactate - General, Specifics, Uses] April, 2002

Volume 8

Issue 1 Strength Training 3 [General Theory, Strength Training Factors, Applications, Testing, Specificity and Extended Effects, Creatine, Plyometrics] September, 2002

WSCG IV: 2002

10. A critical examination of motor control and transfer issues in putting, M. Fairweather, C. Button and I. Rae

11. Experimental study of effects of distance, slope and break on putting performance for active golfers, J.V. Carnahan

12. Is it a pendulum, is it a plane? – mathematical models of putting, R.J. Brooks

13. Putting alignment in golf : a laser based evaluation, A.D. Potts and N.K. Roach

14. Eye dominance, visibility and putting performance, Y. Sugiyama. , H. Nishizono, S. Takeshita and R. Yamada

15. Alignment variations among junior golfers, R.J. Leigh

16. The effects of outcome imagery in golf putting performance, J.A. Taylor and D.F. Shaw

22. Performance and practice; elite women European tour golfers during a pressure and non pressure putting simulation, K. Douglas and K.R. Fox

24. Yielding to internal performance stress – the yips in golf, K.M. Kingston, M. Madill and R. Mullen

47. An investigation into the effect of the roll of a ball using the C-Groove putter, P.D. Hurrion and R.D. Hurrion

GREENS

48. Evaluation of new cultivars for putting greens in the US, K. Morris and G.L. Gao

51. Transformation of herbicide tolerant and disease resistant Creeping Bentgrass, F.C. Belanger

54. Effects of syringing on summer stress performance of Creeping Bentgrass, C.H. Peacock, B.W. Bennett Jr. and A.H. Bruneau

55. Reduced rate pre-emergence herbicide programs for Digitaria Ischaemum in Bermudagrass turf, M.J. Fagerness and F.H. Yelverton

56. Conventional and innovative methods for Fairy Ring management in turf grass, M.A. Fidanza, P.L. Colbaugh, H.B. Couch, S.D. Davis and D.L. Sanford

58. The use of plant growth regulators to reduce Poa Annua ssp in bentgrass putting greens, F.H. Yelverton, A.H. Bruneau and T.W. Rufty

61. Sulphur level and timing effects on Creeping Bentgrass injury and soil pH, J. D. Fry, S. J. Keeley and J. Lee

64. Diurnal and temporal variations of green speed, E. Pelz

67. An improved apparatus and technique for measuring green speed, D. Pelz

WSCG III: 1998

18. An Overview of Psychological Techniques Used for Performance Enhancement in Golf, B.Y.B. Lee

19. Stress Responses and Performance in Intercollegiate Golfers, G.S. Krahenbuhl; J. Harris; J. Stern; D.J. Crews & N. Hubalik

20. Goal Orientations and State Goals; Research in Golf; and Implications for Performance, K. Kingston & A. Swain

21. Psychophysiological Indicators of Confidence and Habituation During Golf Putting, D.J Crews; R. Lutz: P. Nilsson & L. Marriott

22. Using ‘Swing Thoughts' to Prevent Paradoxical Performance Effects in Golf Putting, R. Jackson & R.J. Willson

23. Attentional interference as motor program retrieval or as available resources and the effects on putting performance, N. Anthony

24. Peak Putting Performance: Psychological Skills and Strategies Utilized by PGA Tour Pros, P. Beauchamp

27. Who chokes and when? Situational and dispositional factors in failure under pressure, D.E.Linder; R. Lutz; D. Crews & M. Lochbaum

34. Variable and Constant Practice: Ideas for Successful Putting, M. Guadagnoli & W. Holcomb

46. Hole Size, Luck and the Cruelty of Putting: A Thought Experiment on the Impact of Quantization in Golf, L.M. Landsberger

49. A Bivariate Probability Model for Putting Proficiency, D.Tierney & R.H. Coop

53. The Effects of Golf Ball Construction on Putting, L.D. Lemons; MB. Stanczak & D. Beasley

54. Mechanical Interaction of the Golf Ball with Putting Greens, M. Hubbard; & L.W. Alaways

GREENS

73. The Effects of Golf Shoe Tread Types on Putting Green Quality, G. Hamilton; J.S. Gregos; D.S. Sinkus; L.P. Tredway & A.E. Glover

81. Organic Amendments for Sand-Dominated Golf Green Rootzones, A. Cook & S.W. Baker

82. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Suppression of Poa Annua Ssp. Reptans in a Creeping Bentgrass Putting Green, A.H. Bruneau F.H. Yelverton; J. Isgrigg & T.W. Rufty

83. Comparitive Assessments of Turf Characteristics and Stress Resistance for Three Cynodon Hybrids used on Putting Greens, J.B. Beard & S.I. Sifers

84. Water Release Curve Evaluation of Golf Green Construction Materials and Field Collected Samples, D.K.Otto; CR. Dixon J.B. McWilliams

85. Agrostis Cultivar Characterisations for Closely Mowed Putting Greens in a Mediterranean Climate, P. Cryce; M. Mocioni & J.B.Beard

WSCG II: 1994

24. Promotion of the flow state in golf: a goal perspective analysis, J. L. Dud

25. Mental preparation for golf: achieving optimal performance, S. Murphy

26. Visual performance differences among professional, amateur, and senior amateur golfers, B. Coffey, A. W. Reichow, T. Johnson and S. Yamane

27. Toward putting performance enhancement: a methodology using quantitative feedback, P. H. Beauchamp, L. M. Landsberger, W. R. Halliwell, R. Koestner and M.E. Ford

28. A study of golfers' abilities to read greens, D. Pelz

29. How to lower your putting score without improving, B. Hoadley

GREENS

2. The playing quality of golf greens, S. W. Baker

3. A method for classifying the quality of golf green turf, T. A. Lodge and D. J. Pilbeam

4. The effects of light-weight rolling on putting greens, G. W. Hamilton, Jr, D. W. Livingston and A. E. Gover

5. Golf ball impacts, greens and the golfer, S. J. Haake

9. The role of fungi on the development of water-repellent soils on UK golf greens, C.A. York and N. W. Lepp

12. Response of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) to natural organic fertilizers, C. H. Peacock and J. M. Dipaola

13. Characterization of localised dry spots on creeping bentgrass turf in the United States, T. K. Danneberger and R. A. Hudson

WSCG I: 1990

11. A laser based putting alignment test, F. G. McGlynn, R. Jones, D. G. Kerwin

12. Visual alignment considerations in golf putting consistency, B. Coffey, T. Mathison, M. Viker, A Reichow, C. Hogan, D. Pelz

OPTIMISING PERFORMANCE

7. A Laser-based Evaluation of Two Different Alignment Strategies Used in Golf Putting, A.D. Potts & N.K. Roach

 

Project Title: Motor Cognition and Golf Putting
Supervisors: Dr Eric Wallace and Tadhg MacIntyre
Level: PhD

Background to the project

At the professional level, putting is regarded as being among the best predictors of golf performance (Dorsel & Rotunda, 2001). Golf research has typically focused on the kinematics of the swing, or the movement (e.g., Egret et al., 2006) rather than the preparation for the golf shot, or the action representation. The emerging field that is concerned with action and its representation is known as motor cognition (Jeannerod, 2006). This domain investigates imagery, action, and kinaesthetic processes (MacIntyre, 2006). While imagery has been studied in the golf setting (Thomas, 2001), to date no studies have examined the role of the action in the practice swings and pre-shot behaviours of elite golfers. Understanding the preparation for action is a key to shedding light on how movements are represented. This has direct implications both for the development and maintenance of expertise within golf and possible insights relevant for the rehabilitation context. This project will be unique in tackling these issues with such diverse and robust methodologies.

Methods

A converging methods approach will be applied ranging from the qualitative to the quantitative modes of enquiry. Firstly, semi-structured interviews will be conducted and analysed (Robson, 2002). Secondly, an observational field study will examine the actual pre-putt behaviours of elite performers (Boutcher & Crews, 1987). And finally, motion analysis, force plate technology and putting measures (SAM puttlab™) will be combined to elucidate both the kinematics and mental kinematics of the putting behaviour.

Yr 1 Literature review, qualitative interviews and pilot testing of laboratory procedures.
Yr 2 Field study of practice behaviours of elite golfers, laboratory investigation of expert golfers putting performance using motion analysis and completion of introductory chapters and methodology
Yr3 Final writing up of papers/thesis, development of a model of motor cognition for putting and dissemination of outputs at international conference.

Objectives of the research

The following research questions will be posed:

• What role do practice putts and imagery have on putting behaviour?
• How do elite golfers employ practice swings and other pre-shot behaviours to facilitate their ongoing performance?
• What are the kinematics and mental kinematics of the preparatory action prior to the actual golf-putt?
• How do the practice swing and the actual golf-putt relate in terms of kinematics.

References

Boutcher, S. H., & Crews, D. J. (1987). The effect of a preshot attentional routine on a well-learned skill. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 18, 30-39.

Dorsel, T. N. & Rotunda, R. J. (2001). Low scores, top 10 finishes, and big money: An analysis of professional golf association tour statistics and how these relate to overall performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92, 575-585.

Egret, C. I., Nicolle, B., Dujardin, F. H., Weber, J., & Chollet, D. (2006). Kinematic Analysis of the Golf Swing in Men and Women Experienced Golfers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(6).

Jeannerod, M. (2006). Motor cognition: What action tells the self. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MacIntyre, T. (2006). Motor cognition: Kinaesthetic processes in imagery. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University College Dublin.

Robson, C. (2002). Real world research (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

Thomas, P. R. (2001). Optimisizing performance in golf. Sydney, Aus.: Australian Academic Press.

Skills required of applicant

The successful applicant should be familiar with research in biomechanics and imagery relating to skilled movements and the methodology outline above. Theoretical knowledge and/or playing experience of golf is desirable, though not essential. The ability to communicate succinctly, clearly and appropriate to the discipline are also desirable qualities for those interested in this position.

N.B. Dr Eric Wallace is available for further discussions on the nature and direction of this project and can be contacted via email es.wallace@ulster.ac.uk or by telephone 028 90 366535.

http://www.science.ulster.ac.uk/gradschool/pdf/sports07.pdf

 

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