Geoff Mangum's Guide to
Native American History & Culture

Prehistory, Contact to the End of the Indian Wars, and Modern Days

Catlin Village

This webpage features North America before the Europeans, and during the ensuing four centuries (1500-1900) of European dispossession of the native populations by violence and deceit, euphemistically termed "the clash of cultures", and with modern information on tribes and cultures. The collection of Google Maps contains about 15,000 feature-rich placemarks with live links to web resources organized topically and usually with dates, and the Google Earth viewer allows seeing the entire collection at once. The overarching idea is to portray accurately and in detail the great change that swept the American landscape between 1500 and 1900, or the first three centuries 1500-1800 of native-European contact before the creation of the United States (1791) and the following century 1800-1900 of federal warfare against the remnant tribes in pursuit of Manifest Destiny.

HOW TO: To view any one of the Google Maps for a subject, just click on the Map link. To view a single map in Google Earth, first download and install the Google Earth viewer, and then second either a) proceed from a single map to view solely that map on Google Earth by using the top right menu of the Google Map webpage ("View in Google Earth") or b) better yet view the entire collection by downloading the 40 "kml" files for all the maps in a batch to your computer desktop (or elsewhere) and then in the Google Earth viewer use File>Open from the top menu and select all the kml files to open. In order to download the entire updated collection of kml files for all 40 or so Google Maps, go to this FTP site and drag-and-drop the KML folder's contents to your hard drive: FTP site click here: ftp://puttzone:puttzone@ftp.puttingzoneclinics.com. Wait for the files to appear -- no password or anything is required other than to click this link.

If this is difficult for you, simply email me and I'll get the kml Google Earth files to you. Finally, once the kml files are loaded / opened in the Google Earth viewer, if the placemarks are too dense or you wish to see only certain subjects, use the left sidebar to select or deselect subjects. Current collection: approximately 15,000 placemarks. Updating is in progress and your assistance is welcome (email me). For further assistance and news of additions and changes, visit the Native America Project on Facebook.

MORE RESOURCES: In addition to the Google Maps, the Google Earth collection, and the Facebook page Native America Project, I have compiled a massive research library that is accessible online for research, with over 14,000 titles categorized along lines similar to the Google Maps (and I am adding to this collection steadily). The Native America Project Online Library is best used by selecting one of the main categories from the drop-down menu at top left, and then searching inside that category using the lower search window at top right ("search your library", not the "search site" window above it, which searches all libraries in the librarything.com website).

For example, to search titles pertaining to the Creeks, select "Native America Project" and enter "Creek" in the window (367 current titles). The "Fur Trade" category has 666 current titles. To search Native American trails, choose "All Collections" and enter "trail" in the search window (528 titles, the world's most extensive research for early Indian trails). To search Native American trails in Ohio, select the "Transportation" category and enter "Ohio" in the search window (112 current titles). The "Native America Project" plus "Ohio" search generates 898 titles tracking the Native American experience in Ohio. Searching the "Online" category plus "Ohio" generates 385 titles that are available full-text immediately online, so 45% of all Ohio Indian titles are available full-text online. The "Online" category itself currently has 2,528 full-text titles, so nearly one in six of all NAP titles are available online, and most of these valuable works of history are otherwise completely inaccessible to almost everyone except professors with grants at high-endowment research universities, and these professors are not numerous or energetic about using these resources. This library is far more comprehensive than any research compilation generated heretofore in any University, and will reveal to any tenured history professor resources he or she in not familiar with within minutes. Likewise, any student of Native American history can accomplish in 2-3 minutes what would otherwise require several weeks to accomplish in traditional bibliographic research in libraries and online.

The NAP Library also IMPROVES current academic resources and makes them more accessible and usable. For example, the folks at the Research Laboratories of Archaeology (RLA) at UNC-Chapel Hill doubtless think highly of the RLA archive of Southern Indian Studies issued serially since the 1930s, but none of the archived materials appear in anything but PDF images and these materials are not searchable full-text. The NAP Library has done for UNC's RLA what they should have done decades ago, as I have crawled thru all the articles and indexed them individually into the NAP Library including live url web links to allow the researchers to open the document to read the content. There are about 430 titles from the RLA indexed and searchable in the NAP Library. Similar corrective work has been done for state and university archaeological and historical archives around the country, such as the Massachusetts Archaeological Society (111 articles indexed), the Connecticut Archaeological Society (104 titles) and many more.

As another example, there is a "Bibliography of Bibliographies" in the NAP Library that currently contains 887 titles, compared to standard academic bibliographies that contain perhaps 100 or fewer titles. A related collection in the NAP Library is Place Names in the United States and Canada of Indian Origin, currently containing about 300 titles and soon to grow to over 1,500. These are bibliographic titles. The ACTUAL place names or original Indian names for towns and villages and counties and states and rivers and streams and mountains and the like is another on-going compilation locating each place name on the Google Map series and making them available on the Google Earth collection: for this, as an example, Long Island, New York, alone has nearly 500 identified Indian place names that are being located, with the original meaning of the Indian word(s) for the locality. The Susquehanna Valley has nearly 400 identified Indian place names. New England has over 1,000. The same is being done for all US states and Canadian provinces. Altogether, this NAP online research collection is not only searchable online, but it is far more complete than anything that has ever existed for Native American history.

The complete Native American Project is a) colossal, and b) in progress. If you would like to volunteer assistance, please send me email at geoff@puttingzone.com. I have been asking for academic professors to support this project with direct or indirect assistance, including helping sponsor grant proposals for funding to take the NAP to the next level: online interactive maps and searchable databases, CD and DVD media productions for school and university students, tribal sponsored materials to promote education and travel and tourism, cooperative public educational programs, and the like. The response so far has been shamefully unenergetic. If you would like to tell others about this resource, you may want to download and print this one-page Native America Project poster (170 kb pdf download) to post on a bulletin board or to send out as an email attachment. Thanks.

TopHistorical Narrative

Guide to Google Maps


TopGuide to the Google Maps

Back to Home Page

HOW TO: To view any one of the Google Maps for a subject, just click on the Map link. To view a single map in Google Earth, first download and install the Google Earth viewer, and then second either a) proceed from a single map to view solely that map on Google Earth by using the top right menu of the Google Map webpage ("View in Google Earth") or b) better yet view the entire collection by downloading the 40 "kml" files for all the maps in a batch to your computer desktop (or elsewhere) and then in the Google Earth viewer use File>Open from the top menu and select all the kml files to open. In order to download the entire updated collection of kml files for all 40 or so Google Maps, go to this FTP site and drag-and-drop the KML folder's contents to your hard drive: FTP site click here: ftp://puttzone:puttzone@ftp.puttingzoneclinics.com. Wait for the files to appear -- no password or anything is required other than to click this link.

This project is a) colossal, and b) in progress. If you would like to volunteer assistance, please send me email at geoff@puttingzone.com. If you would like to tell others about this resource, you may want this one-page Native America Project poster (170 kb pdf download) to post on a bulletin board or to send out as an email attachment. Thanks.

Drag to pan, brush two fingertips upward on touch pad to enlarge, downward to shrink.

Top Indian Tribes of America


McKenney

Indian Tribes of America
(currently 13 pages of Placemarks, approx. 1,800)
some forts, villages, wars


View Indian Tribes of America in a larger map


View Indian Tribes of America (2) in a larger map

Indian Tribes of America, federally and state recognized and non-recognized tribes, from prehistory to today, from BIA, NCAI, state, and Federal Acknowledgement sources. IN PROGRESS.

Tribes 1500

 

Top Modern American Tribes (Federal, State, and Non-recognized)

.

Pequot Reservation

Federal Indian Tribes
(approx. 420)


View Federal Indian Tribes in a larger map

Federally recognized American Indian tribes -- from BIA list, A-Z done.

Indian Reservations
US Indian Reservations

Federal Lands and Reservations

.

Top Alaska Native Communities

Alaska Natives

Alaska Native Communities
(approx. 250)


View Alaska Native Communities in a larger map

Alaska Native Communities. IN PROGRESS.

Alaska Native Museum

Top Canadian First Nations

 

Canada Contact Tribes

Canadian First Nations, Inuits and Metis
(approx. 850)


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First Nations, Inuit, and Metis organizations and entites in Canada. IN PROGRESS.

Totem Poles

Canada Indians

Top Indian Towns

 

Secotan
Algonkian Secoton Village, NC Coast (1590s)

Indian Towns and Villages 1500-1900 (1)
(approx. 650, in progress)

Indian Towns and Villages 1500-1900 (2)
(approx. 550, in progress)

Indian Towns and Villages 1500-1900 (3)
(approx. 1050, in progress)

Indian Towns and Villages 1500-1900 (4)
(approx. 500, in progress)


View Indian Towns and Villages in a larger map

Indian towns and villages identified mainly in Capt Smith's map 1607, Swanton's Indian Tribes of North America, Hodge's Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, 1910, U.S. department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, numerous books, maps and websites, along with other historical sources. IN PROGRESS.

Pawnee Village
Pawnee

Palisade Village
Congaree

Sioux Village
Sioux

Seminole Town
Seminole


Top Indian Biography

Indian Biography (1) (approx. 1,000).


View Indian Biography (1) in a larger map

Indian Biography (2) (approx. 250, IN PROGRESS).


View Indian Biography (2) in a larger map

 

Top Indian Archaeology

 

Ohio Newark Earthworks
Ancient Earthworks, Newark OH

Indian Archaeology Museums and Sites
(approx. 400)


View Indian Archaeology Sites and Museums in a larger map

Native American archaeological sites, primarily pre-contact. America's Ancient Treasures, by Folsom and Folsom (3rd ed. 1983), and other sources. IN PROGRESS.

Kincaid Site
Kincaid Site


Top Indian History Museums

 

National Museum of the American Indian
Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of the American Indian (opened 2004)

Indian History Museums and Tourism
(approx. 800)


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Museums featuring Native American Indian archaeology and history and sites or centers for historic recreations and tourism, along with special library collections. IN PROGRESS.

Cahokia Birdman Tablet
Cahokia Birdman Tablet


Top Indian Schools

 

Tulalip School 1865
Tulalip Indian School (1865)

Indian Schools
(approx. 650 marks)


View Indian Schools in a larger map

Indian boarding schools, state schools, reservation schools, mission schools and colleges in US and Canada, from BIA and Indian Education sources, and other sources. IN PROGRESS.

Top Indian Missions


Monterey Mission San Carlos 1792
San Carlos Mission, Monterey California 1792
"The Mission of St. Carlos near Monterrey". Volume II, plate I from:
"A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World" by Captain George Vancouver.

Indian Missions
(approx. 500)


View Indian Missions in a larger map

Spanish established in Florida 1606-1630; California, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona; French established, 1638-1721; Anglican missions since 1620s. IN PROGRESS.

St Marie Mission
St Marie among the Hurons, Georgian Bay ON (1639)

Holy Family Log Church, Cahokia IL, ca. 1700
Holy Family Log Church, Cahokia IL (ca. 1699)

 

Top European Exploration and Settlement

 


Arrival of the Mayflower, Massachussetts Coast (1620)
The Indian awaiting the arrival already spoke English -- he learned it from a former Patuxet Indian who had been enslaved by the English explorers in Maine 15 years earlier -- Squanto - who had managed to return to his homeland the year before in 1619..

British colonization came over a century late to the Americas. The person greeting the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock in 1620 already spoke English and helped the Europeans survive. He was a friend of Patuxet Indian Tisquantum (Squanto), who had been captured in 1605 at about age 25 by English explorers in Maine and taken to England as a captive translator. Capt John Smith brought him back to America in 1612, and after a couple of years of assistance allowed him to start walking north to his New England home. On the way, Tisquantum was again captured in 1614 by English slave hunters headed by one of Smith's lieutenants and carried to Malaga Spain for sale, but was rescued by Spanish friars and later allowed to make his way to England, where he lived with a shipbuilder and learned English. Tisquantum then made his way to Newfoundland with an expedition of English explorers but was too far from New England to walk home, so he returned to England in 1618. The following year he made another trip across the Atlantic and finally reached home to find his tribe had been decimated by plague the year before. Tisquantum then settled with the newly arrived Pilgrims (1620) and assisted them with translation, planting maize, and relations with local tribes, including the Wampanoag Confederacy headed by sachem Massasoit. On one diplomatic mission, Tisquantum was apparently poisoned by distrusting Wampanoags and died a few days afterwards. He is buried in an unmarked grave on Burial Hill in Chathamport, overlooking Ryder's Cove.

European Exploration and Settlement
(approx. 350)


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European exploration, migration, and settlement, 1400-1900, including expansion of trade and transportation networks. IN PROGRESS.

Top Indian Trails and Settler Roads

 

Natchez Trace
Ancient Natchez Trace (Tennessee and Mississippi)

Trails Map
Early Trails and Roads ca. 1750s

Early Indian Paths and Settler Roads (1)
(approx. 550)

Early Indian Paths and Settler Roads (2)
(approx. 175)


View Early Indian Paths and Settler Roads (1) in a larger map


View Early Indian Paths and Settler Trails and Roads (2) in a larger map

Indian trails and path, and settler hunting, military, trade and migration trails and roads, 1500-1900. IN PROGRESS.


Top Maps


Adair Map
Adair's Map of American Indian Tribes (1755)

Early Maps with Indian Sites (1)
(approx. 1000)


View Early Maps with Indian Sites (1) in a larger map

Early Maps with Indian Sites (2)
(approx. 100)


View Early Maps with Indian Sites (2) in a larger map

Online and other early American maps showing Indian sites. IN PROGRESS.

New Mexico

 

Top Indian Place Names


View Indian Place Names in a larger map

 

Top Fur Trade

 

Canadian Fur Trading Posts
Canadian Fur Trading Posts

Indian Fur Trade & Trading Posts
(approx. 500)


View Indian Fur Trade & Trading Posts in a larger map

Spanish, French, British, Russian, Dutch, American -- 1600-1900. IN PROGRESS.

TrapperJoseph Meek, Trapper

Top Forts

 

Fort Orange 1624
Fort Orange on the Hudson, Dutch Albany (1624)

American and Canadian Forts (1)
(approx. 1,450)


View US-Canadian Forts 1500-1900 (1) in a larger map

American and Canadian Forts (2)
(approx. 75)


View US-Canadian Forts 1500-1900 (2) in a larger map

American and Canadian Forts (3)
(approx. 200)


View US-Canadian Forts 1500-1900 (3) in a larger map

American and Canadian Forts (4)
(approx. 250)


View US-Canadian Forts 1500-1900 (4) in a larger map

European fortifications of settlement for protection / aggression against Indians, with overlap in US-European wars (colonial empire wars, Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Mexican War, Spanish-American War, but generally excluding Civil War except for overlap in Western Indian Wars). IN PROGRESS.

Ft Laramie
Fort Laramie (1851)

 

Top Indian Wars

Hotchkiss Guns
Hotchkiss Guns used against women and children at Wounded Knee (1890)

North American Indian Wars (1)
(approx. 400)


View North American Indian Wars (1) in a larger map

North American Indian Wars (2)
(approx. 350)


View North American Indian Wars (2) in a larger map

North American Indian Wars with Europeans in North America from first contact to end of 19th century, including murders, massacres, depredations, uprisings, renegade actions, extermination campaigns, genocide, raids, pursuits, and the like, along with select western US military forts. IN PROGRESS. Forgotten Fights, by Michno and Michno (2008), thru AZ; FortTours.com for Texas fights, by county.

Red River War
Red River Battle, Texas

Top Old Cherokee Towns


Cherokee Nation 1746

Old Cherokee Towns

Top Eastern Indian Removal


1836 Removal Map
Maps of Land Assigned to the "Emigrant" Indians (1836)

Cherokee Trail of Tears (Northern Route)

Choctaw Trail of Tears
Choctaw Trail of Tears


TopPowwows, Festivals and Conferences

 

Powwow

Indian Powwows, Festivals and Conferences
(approx. 75)


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Calendar of US Native American Powwows and other Indian festivals and conferences, starting with 2008 Powwows and catching up to today. IN PROGRESS.

Bodmer Hidatsa
Two Ravens, Hidatsa, by Karl Bodmer (1834)


Top Indian Casinos and Gaming

Casinos

Indian Casinos and Gaming
(approx. 600)


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Casinos and other gaming operations by Native American tribes (blue; green is non-Indian). IN PROGRESS.

Indian Gaming Magazine

Top Indian Art of Native America

McKenney and Hall

Indian Art of Native America
(approx. 150)


View Indian Art of Native America in a larger map


Top Indian Bibliograpghy -- Online Books

 

The links below open onto online books with full-text that can be read online or downloaded in pdf, epub, txt, and other formats, consisting of general and specific Indian histories of tribes, and Indian-white conflict, Indian biographies, cultural and thnographic studies, archaeological studies, Indian mission and education history, exploration and settlement and military campaigns, art works concerning Indian life, popular works, and more. The Google Map is below:

Indian Online Bibliography (1)
(approx. 1000)


View Indian Online Bibliography (1) in a larger map

Indian Online Bibliography (2)
(approx. 550)


View Indian Online Bibliography (2) in a larger map

Indian Online Bibliography (3)
(approx. 375)


View Indian Online Bibliography (3) in a larger map

These links will be organized in due time. The above is a Google Map for the books and markers placing the books in appropriate locations and topics on Google Earth, and additional references of books and articles of items not available in full-text online but available for purchase will be added later.

Others added since the above.

Backtrack to the Historical Narrative! Page 1 of 2.
Bodmer
Bodmer
Bodmer
Bodmer

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